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白俄罗斯明斯克现在时间及今日气温



地理

明斯克市位于欧洲东部,是白俄罗斯共和国的首都和政治、经济、科技和文化的中心,也是独联体总部所在地。 明斯克明斯克市区面积159平方公里,人口150万,地形较为平坦,间有丘陵和高地。这里属温和的大陆性气候,由于明斯克纬度较高,冬季不象人们想象的那么冷,1月份平均气温5摄氏度左右,到了夏天也不热,7月份平均气温18摄氏度,年降水量为500至700毫米。因此,明斯克被公认为适合居住的城市。

Minsk city is located in Eastern Europe, is the capital of the Republic of Belarus and the political, economic, technological and cultural center, is also located CIS headquarters. Minsk Minsk urban area of 159 square kilometers, population 1500000, the terrain is more flat, with hills and highlands. Here is a temperate continental climate, Minsk due to the higher latitudes, the winter is not so cold as people imagine, the average January temperature of 5 degrees Celsius, the summer is not hot, the average July temperature of 18 degrees Celsius, the annual precipitation is 500 mm to 700 mm. Therefore, Minsk is recognized as a city suitable for living.

历史

很少有人知道,明斯克的历史至今已有近千年了,然而在这里,那种有几百年历史的老房子几乎看不到。这是因为,在上个世纪40年代,这座城市的历史被德国法西斯拦腰斩断。在二战期间长达3年的沦陷中,明斯克几乎成为一片废墟。二战结束后,明斯克人以斯韦斯洛奇河为中轴,在废墟上重新建起了这座城市。 明斯克在明斯克,处处可以感受到这座城市对和平的珍惜和对战争的憎恶。斯韦斯洛奇河中心,有一座自然形成的、方圆20多米的小岛,上世纪90年代,白俄罗斯著名的雕塑家在岛上创作了一组群雕,用于纪念在80年代苏联入侵阿富汗战争中阵亡的白俄罗斯将士。人们把这个原本无名的小岛称作“泪岛”,每当苏联从阿富汗撤军的纪念日,这里都会举行悼念仪式。在明斯克的郊外,还有一座“光荣之丘”,那是在1995年二战胜利50周年的时候,白俄罗斯政府用从全国各地采集而来的泥土堆积而成的一座30米高的小山,纪念那场半个世纪前的灾难。 明斯克是一座伤痕累累的城市,除了战争之外,最严重的伤害莫过于20年前的切尔诺贝利核电站泄漏事故。“切尔诺贝利伤残者”协会的主席卡缅科夫告诉记者,白俄罗斯是切尔诺贝利事件中最大的受害者。直到今天,白俄罗斯仍然没能从切尔诺贝利的阴影中解脱出来,在白俄罗斯境内,仍然有好几处“无人区”。

Few people know, Minsk has been the history of nearly a thousand years, and yet here, that there are hundreds of years old house almost can not see. This is because, in the last century 40's, the history of the city by the German fascist Lanyao off. During World War II for 3 years in Minsk fall, almost in ruins. After the end of World War II, the people of Minsk to swess rocky river as the axis, to build the city in ruins. Minsk in Minsk, everywhere can feel the city to cherish peace and abhorrence of war. Swess Rocky River Center, there is a natural formation, a radius of 20 meters of the island, the last century 90's, Belarus's famous sculptors created a group of sculptures on the island in the 80's, to commemorate the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in Belarus soldiers killed. People put the island originally nameless called "tears of the island", when Soviet troops from Afghanistan's memorial day, here will hold a memorial ceremony. On the outskirts of Minsk, there is a "glorious hill", it is the 50 anniversary of victory in World War II in 1995, the government of Belarus from the collection throughout the country and to soil piled up a hill 30 meters high, memory of the half a century ago, disaster. Minsk is a scarred City, war aside, the most severe injury than 20 years ago, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. "The disabled" association chairman C Menkov told reporters, Belarus is the biggest victims of chernobyl. Until today, Belarus still can't escape from the shadow of Chernobyl, in Belarus, there are still several "no man's land".

经济

明斯克上空彩虹是原苏联重要的工业中心之一,是现今白俄罗斯最大的工业中心,其工业产值占全国的四分之一,其中,毛织品占80%。明斯克的机械制造和金属加工工业相当发达,是其支柱产业,主要生产载重汽车、拖拉机、联合收割机、摩托车和金属切削机床等,农牧业机械是出口创汇的拳头产品,如明斯克拖拉机厂生产的姆特斯80型拖拉机弛名世界,出口到100多个国家和地区。明斯克还是原苏联四大机床产地之一,机床产量占原苏联的25%左右。明斯克的化学工业也很发达,产量较大的是化肥、化纤布和塑料,无线电和电子工业、仪表工业、建材工业及采掘工业也具有较高的发展水平。 明斯克地区的地理环境适于发展畜牧业,是原苏联牛奶、油类、亚麻和马铃薯的主要产区之一,明斯克人称马铃薯为“第二面包”,产量也很高。明斯克的自然资源较为馈乏,绝大部分的原材料,尤其是能源,主要依赖俄罗斯和乌克兰进口。该市积极发展与世界各国,尤其是东欧和西欧国家的经济关系,主要贸易对象除俄罗斯等独联体国家外,还有波兰、奥地利、德国等科技发达的先进国家。

Minsk over the rainbow is one of the most important industrial center of the former Soviet Union, is the largest industrial center in Belarus, the country's total industrial output value of 1/4, which accounted for 80%, wool. Minsk machinery manufacturing and metal processing industry is well developed, is its pillar industry, mainly the production of trucks, tractors, combine harvesters, motorcycle and metal cutting machine tools, machinery for agriculture and animal husbandry is the export of high-quality products, such as the Minsk tractor factory production of the Mtes 80 model tractor relaxation of the world, exported to more than 100 countries and the area. Minsk was one of the former Soviet Union four machine tool production, machine production accounted for about 25% of the former Soviet union. Minsk chemical industry is also very developed, larger output is chemical fertilizer, chemical fiber cloth and plastic, level of development also has higher radio and electronic industry, instrument industry, building materials industry and mining industry. Minsk's geographical environment suitable for the development of animal husbandry, is one of the main producing areas of the former Soviet Union milk, oil, flax and potatoes, Minsk called "second potato bread", yield is very high. Minsk's natural resources are relatively scarce, most of the raw materials, especially energy, mainly rely on imports of Russia and Ukraine. The positive development of the city, with the rest of the world, especially in the economic relationship between the eastern and Western European countries, mainly trade in Russia and other CIS countries, the advanced countries are Poland, Austria, Germany, developed science and technology.

教育

明斯克的科技发展有着优良的传统。1917年十月革命后,明斯克科技、教育的发展速度加快。1921年明斯克创 明斯克立了培养和造就科技人员的基地白俄罗斯国立大学;1922年组建了共和国的第一个科技中心白俄罗斯文化学院;1929年,又在此基础上建立了白俄罗斯科学院,它作为白俄罗斯的科研中心,在欧亚大陆享有盛名。除此之外,明斯克还有物理、数学、核能、历史和哲学等100多个研究机构,以及白俄罗斯大学、工学院、国民经济学院、师范学院和医学院等14所高等院校,170多所普通教育学校,明斯克还兴建了新技术工业园区。

There is a good tradition of Minsk science and technology development. In 1917, after the October revolution, the development speed, speed up the Minsk science and technology education. In 1921, Minsk Minsk made and the training of technical personnel base of Belarus National University; in 1922 established the first Republic of Belarus cultural center of science and Technology College; in 1929, and established on the basis of the Belarus Academy of Sciences, it is Belarus Research Center, enjoys a high reputation in eurasia. In addition, more than 100 research institutions in Minsk and the physics, mathematics, nuclear energy, history and philosophy, as well as Belarus University, Institute of national economy, college, teachers college and medical school in 14 universities, more than 170 general education schools, Minsk is also the construction of the new technology industrial park.

旅游

主要景点 1.白俄罗斯国立大学:位于白俄罗斯共和国首都明斯克市,大学创建于1921年,现为白俄罗斯共和国最高学府及 明斯克 重要的科学研究中心。是前苏联四大著名国立大学之一,在综合类大学里排名第九,现在世界名牌大学排名第47位(高于我国的清华、北大)。大学现有科研室125个,学生15000多人,教师1441人。在大学里工作的有:211名教授及科学院院士,935名副教授及博士,大学里的83个专业是培养学士、硕士及副博士等高级人才的重要基地。其大学校长同时也担任白俄罗斯共和国教育部副部长。 白俄罗斯国立大学(以下简称白大)在培养本国学生的同时,也为来自全世界各地的留学生提供了广阔的深造机会,在大学里有来自美国、中国、日本、德国、法国、东欧各国、东南亚、非洲等世界各地的外国留学生两千多名,学校里有“外国留学生管理办公室”及“对外国际关系办公室”来负责对外国留学生的服务及管理。 2.胜利广场:胜利广场的胜利女神纪念碑高141.8米,象征卫国战争1418个战斗的日日夜夜。三棱形的碑身,每 明斯克 个棱面上用浮雕板表现了莫斯科等12个英雄城市周围的战斗情景.高约100米外,古希腊胜利女神右手拿着金光灿灿的胜利桂冠。她身旁飞着两个胖胖的小天使,一男一女,吹着胜利的号角。纪念碑的下面,是神奇勇士格奥尔基手持长矛刺杀毒蛇的雕像。前面5层阶梯式台阶,每一层代表战争的一年.   广场右侧是一组大型喷泉,左侧是常胜圣格奥尔基大教堂,金顶白墙,纪念碑的后面是一个扇形环抱的中央博物馆。大厅内有6幅大圆立体画面,描绘了莫斯科保卫战,列宁格勒反围困战,斯大林格勒战役,攻克柏林。荣誉厅的墙上,刻满了英雄的名字。纪念礼品中有中国人民解放军和张万年上将赠送的礼品。  广场的后面,有露天的展览,有各种火炮,坦克,飞机等实物。另一侧还有舰艇的展示,军事强国初露端倪。整个胜利公园,绿树环抱,风景优美.3.泪岛:位于明斯克市特洛伊茨老城城外的斯维斯洛奇河中,是为纪念在苏联入侵阿富汗战争中阵亡和失踪的800多名白俄罗斯官兵建造的建筑群。岛中心矗立着阵亡将士的纪念塔碑。在建筑时,阵亡官兵的母亲们给该岛起名为“悲痛和眼泪的岛”,后来简称为“泪岛”。 4.伟大卫国战争历史国家博物馆:位于明斯克市共和国宫左侧,是白俄罗斯最大、收藏品最多的一座卫国战争纪 明斯克 念馆。博物馆于1944年10月22日首次对外开放,主要展品来自1942年10月在莫斯科举办的“白俄罗斯的生活和战斗历程”展。这些展品集中反映了白俄罗斯军民在1941年-1945年间抗击德国法西斯的悲壮历史。1966年博物馆正式迁入现在的三层建筑内,共有25个展厅,总面积3600平米,陈设着13.25万件各种照片、文物及艺术作品。博物馆内院是专门的展示坪,陈列着苏军第二次世界大战时期的武器装备实物。5.圣灵主教大教堂概况:明斯克东正教重要的活动中心,始建于1633年,1642 年完工,属巴洛克建筑风格。最初曾是天主教女修道院的主教堂。1860年,该教堂转为东正教教堂。1870年教堂开设圣灵修士修道院。1918年,修道院被关闭,圣灵大教堂的礼拜活动也被禁止。教堂变为消防队训练场地,随后被改为档案馆。1943年,教堂开始恢复东正教礼拜活动,所属修道院也予以恢复。1947年,教堂顶部安放东正教大十字架。20世纪50年代上半叶,对教堂内部进行过一次维修。70年代末到80年代初,对教堂进行最后一次修葺并保持至今。教堂中供奉着一些宗教珍品,如:明斯克圣母圣像等。6.别洛韦日国家森林公园:面积8.76万公顷,系欧洲最大的平原森林,被联合国教科文组织列为80项人类遗产之一。林区景观优美,植物、动物种类繁多,许多为世界珍稀品种。夏季为旅游、度假胜地。林中野牛为欧洲最大动物,世上稀品,壮者体长3.5米,高2米,重1000公斤,寿命25-30年。1914年曾多达700头,第一次世界大战期间被猎绝。1946年从波兰运进5头繁殖,现达300多头。20世纪50年代,在森林公园中心的村庄维斯库利建成前苏国家领导人的官邸。1991年12月8日,俄罗斯、乌克兰和白俄罗斯三个加盟共和国领导人叶利钦、克拉夫丘克和舒什克维奇在这里签署了宣告苏联不复存在的《成立独联体协议》。

The main attractions The 1 National University of Belarus: Belarus is located in Minsk City, the capital of the Republic, the University was founded in 1921, is now the Belarus Republic and the highest institution of higher learning Minsk The scientific research center of important. Is one of the former Soviet Union four big famous National University, ranked ninth in the comprehensive university, now the world famous university ranked forty-seventh (higher than China's Qinghua, Beijing University). University of existing research room 125, more than 15000 students, 1441 teachers. Working in the university are: 211 professor and member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 935 associate professors and doctoral, 83 professional university is an important base for training the bachelor, master and doctoral and senior talents of vice. The University also served as vice minister of Ministry of education of the Republic of Belarus. National University of Belarus (hereinafter referred to as the white big) in training their students at the same time, also provides a broad education opportunities for students from all over the world, in the University, from USA Chinese, Japan, Germany, France, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa around the world in more than two thousand foreign students, the school there is "the foreign students administration office" and "International Relations Office" to be responsible for the foreign students service and management. 2 Victory Square: Victory Square goddess of Victory Monument 141.8 meters high, a symbol of the 1418 battle in the Great Patriotic War of day and night. Beishen prism of three, each Minsk An edge surface of the plate embossed with the Moscow city around 12 hero of the battle scenes. About 100 meters high, the ancient Greek goddess of victory, his right hand holding a golden crown of victory. Her flying two fat little angel, a male and a female, blowing the trumpet. The following is the monument, magical warrior Georgi spear serpent statues. In front of the 5 layer step step, each layer represents the war a year. On the right side of the square is a large group of fountain, on the left side is winning San Georgi Cathedral, the white walls, the monument is behind a fan-shaped surrounded the central museum. Inside the hall there are 6 pieces of large three-dimensional images, depicting the battle of Moscow, Lenin Ziegler anti siege, the battle of Stalingrad, the capture of Berlin. Hall of fame wall, engraved with the hero's name. There are Chinese people's Liberation Army and Admiral Zhang Wannian gifts Memorial gifts. Back of the square, there are open-air exhibition, a variety of artillery, tanks, aircraft and other physical. On the other side of the display of military power and ships, the horizon. The Victory Park, surrounded by green trees, beautiful scenery.3. tears Island: located in Minsk City, Troy, old town outside, Weiss lodge in the river, is a memorial built in the Soviet war in Afghanistan and killed more than 800 missing Belarus officers and men of the buildings. The centre of the island stands the Monument Memorial monument. In construction, the officers and soldiers killed mothers named the island "sorrow and tears of the island", later referred to as the "tears of the island". 4 the Great Patriotic War history of National Museum: Minsk city is located in the palace of the Republic, left, is Belarus's largest collections of up to a patriotic war memorial Minsk Memorial hall. The museum first opened its doors in October 22, 1944, the main exhibits from 1942 October held in Moscow "in life and struggle of Belarus" exhibition. These exhibits reflect the Belarus military in the fight between 1941 -1945 the tragic history of Germany and france. Museum in 1966 moved to three storey building now, a total of 25 exhibition halls, a total area of 3600 square meters, 132500 display with a variety of photographs, artifacts and works of art. Home is a museum devoted to show Ping, Red Army during the Second World War, the weapons and equipment display material. In 5 the Holy Spirit cathedral: Minsk orthodox important activity center, founded in 1633, completed in 1642, is a baroque style architecture. The first was the main Catholic Church convent. In 1860, the Orthodox Church to church. In 1870 the Church of the Holy Spirit to open the monastery monks. In 1918, the monastery was closed, the Holy Spirit Cathedral worship also be prohibited. The church into a fire brigade training sites, and then was changed to the archives. In 1943, the church began to return to the Orthodox Church, which also to the restoration of the monastery. In 1947, the top of the cathedral is orthodox cross. The first half of the twentieth Century 50's, had a repair to the interior of the church. At the end of 70's to the early 80's, the last of the church to repair and maintain so far. A church dedicated to a number of religious treasures, such as: Minsk Mary icons. 6 belovezh national Forest Park: area of 87600 hectares, is Europe's largest forest plains, listed by UNESCO as one of the 80 human heritage. Beautiful forest landscape, plant, animal species, many of the world's rare species. Summer tourism, resort. Bison for Europe's largest forest animal, rare earth products, strong body is 3.5 meters long, 2 meters high, weighing 1000 kilograms, the life of 25 - 30 years. In 1914 had as many as 700, hunting during the first World War. From Poland in 1946 into 5 heads breeding, it is up to 300 long. In twentieth Century 50, in the center of Forest Park village Weiss Cooley completed before the Soviet leaders mansion. In December 8, 1991, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus three republics leader Yeltsin, Clough Chu and Shug J J Vecchi signed here, that the Soviet Union ceased to exist in the CIS Protocol "established".

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1.总统要保护美女资源 :白俄罗斯盛产美女,在明斯克,我充分感受到了这一点。走在明斯克的街头,不经意 街头美女间,一个个“霍尔金娜”、“莎拉波娃”就会从你身边走过。那深深的眼眶、清澈的眼眸、高高的鼻梁……完全符合世界上大多数民族的审美标准。今年1月,纽约举行的“世界超模大赛”中的花魁,就是一位18岁的白俄罗斯女高中生。 白俄罗斯姑娘的美,还在于一种无法言传的“风情”。同东方女孩相比,白俄罗斯的美女少有内敛、含蓄,却多了一份自信、张扬。一次在街头,我举着相机,原本打算拍街角的路灯,不料一张少女的脸却突然风情万种地出现在镜头里。原来,这位姑娘误以为我在拍她,不但没有不好意思,反而摆好姿势“配合”我。我也索性将错就错地拍了个够,随后她还留给我电子邮箱,嘱咐我一定要把照片发给她。 白俄罗斯的年轻姑娘中,也兴起了一股“西风”,她们纷纷走出国门远赴西欧,或嫁为人妇,或签约法国、英国的模特公司。对此,卢卡申科总统曾经公开表示,美女是白俄罗斯的一大资源,政府必须要采取措施,加以保护。2.至今保留“克格勃” :来明斯克之前,就听别人说过,白俄罗斯是独联体各国中“最像苏联”的一个。然而刚到明斯克时,我却找不到任何“苏联”的感觉。车窗外穿着时髦服装、留着奇特发型的年轻人在街头游荡,城市 里也不乏赌场、脱衣舞等“现代文明”的产物,商场里的法国服装、意大利香水也一样琳琅满目。正午时分,街心花园里读书的学生,缠绵的情侣,遛狗的老人……跟莫斯科相比,我倒觉得明斯克更像一座典型的欧洲城市。 说白俄罗斯像苏联,大概主要是说这个国家的政治和社会制度。白俄罗斯独立十多年来,很多制度、机构称谓也都保持了苏联时的传统。例如,前苏联的国家安全机构——“克格勃”,大多数原苏联加盟共和国在独立后都放弃了这个称谓,惟独白俄罗斯直到今天还保留着。还有,尽管白俄罗斯已经放弃了共产主义和公有制,但却保留了苏联时期“均贫富”的社会福利制度:所有公民享受免费医疗,教育方面,除了中小学教育全部免费外,就连大学里也有一半的系是免费的。在白俄罗斯,由于政府将每年财政收入的2/3用于福利和社会保障,因此老百姓日常生活所必需的住房、水电、煤气、供暖等费用都很低廉。 3.明斯克飘着“苏联味儿”:白俄罗斯被称为独联体各国中“最像苏联”的国家,这里至今仍保留着大量苏联时期 的政治传统、社会制度与机构设置。2006年3月白俄罗斯总统选举期间,记者走访了白俄罗斯首都明斯克这座已有近千年历史的城市。匆匆来去之间,给记者留下深刻印象的,是那浓浓的“苏联味儿”。 相关文献 万方数据期刊论文白俄罗斯明斯克州地方公路管理和养护工作中的几点做法 - 中外公路 - 200828 ( 2 ) 万方数据期刊论文明斯克市旅游规划编制述论 - 中国名城 - 2010 ( 12 ) 万方数据期刊论文布赫塔尔明斯克水电站 - 水利水电快报 - 200526 ( 9 )

1 president to protect beauty resources: Belarus is rich in beauty, in Minsk, I'm fully aware of this point. Walking in the streets of Minsk, inadvertently Street beauty, a "Khorkina", "Sharapova" will come from your side. The deep eyes, clear eyes, high nose...... Fully meet the aesthetic standards of most people in the world. In January this year, held in New York, "Supermodel of the world contest in the" Miss, is a 18 year old Belarus female high school students. Belarus girl's beauty, still to an inexpressible "style". Compared with the eastern girl, Belarus beauty less restrained, subtle, but more of a confident, assertive. Once in the street, I held the camera, originally intended to take the corner of the street, but a girl's face suddenly amorous feelings to appear on camera. Originally, the girl thought I took her, do not feel shy, but pose "with" I. I would simply make the best of a bad bargain took enough, then she also left me e-mail, told me that I must send the pictures to her. Belarus young girl, also started a "wind", they have to go abroad to Western Europe, or get married, or signing France, British model company. In response, President Lukashenka has publicly said, beauty is a great resource in Belarus, the government must take measures, to protect. 2 still "KGB": before coming to Minsk, he heard someone say, Belarus is the Commonwealth of Independent States "the most like a Soviet Union". However, just arrived in Minsk, I couldn't find any "Soviet" feeling. Young people wearing fashionable clothes, keep strange hairstyle window in the streets, the city also many casino product, strip and other "modern civilization", shopping malls in the French fashion, Italy perfume as a superb collection of beautiful things. At noon, a student studying in the promenade garden, lingering couples, dog man...... Compared with Moscow, I think Minsk is more like a typical European city. Say Belarus is like the Soviet Union, it is said that the political and social system in this country. The independence of Belarus for more than 10 years, many institutions, institutions appellation have maintained the Soviet Union tradition. For example, the national security -- "KGB" mechanism of the former Soviet Union, most former Soviet republics have abandoned this title after independence, but Russia still preserved until today. Also, although Belarus has abandoned communism and the public ownership, but retain the Soviet era "is the" social welfare system: all citizens enjoy free medical care, education, in addition to all the free education in primary and secondary schools, even the University also has half of the line is free. In Belarus, the government will be the annual revenue of 2/3 for welfare and social security, so necessary to the everyday life of ordinary people housing, hydropower, gas, heating costs are very low. The 3 Minsk floating "Soviet style": Belarus is known as "the most CIS countries like the Soviet Union" of the country, here still retains a lot of Soviet political tradition, social system and organization. Belarus's presidential election in 2006 March, the reporter visited the Belarus capital Minsk, the nearly thousand years of history of the city. Hurry to come and go between, for the reporters left a deep impression, is that thick "the Soviet Union". The related literature Practice of Wanfang Data in Belarus Minsk highway management and maintenance work in some - Chinese and foreign highway - 200828 ( 2 ) Wanfang Data in Minsk City, the theory of tourism planning - China City - 2010 ( 12 ) Wanfang Data journals Bucher Mittal of Minsk Hydropower Station - Water conservancy and hydropower - 200526 ( 9 )

欧洲的城市

美丽的东欧是令人向往的,克罗地亚、罗马尼亚、波黑、乌克兰、白俄罗斯、格鲁吉亚等,它们都有着各自的魅力和诱惑,对大多数人来说,到东欧洲旅游,可能就是一个一生也无法圆的梦。本任务将介绍一些东欧的文化名城。  维勒托洛禾布朗城堡斯科普里布拉提斯娜基辅迪那摩 里加萨拉热窝第比利斯基希讷乌明斯克  维尔纽斯萨格勒布德雷斯顿布达佩斯萨尔斯堡

The beauty of the Eastern Europe is desirable, Croatia, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, they all have their own charm and temptation, for most people, to East Europe, may be a lifetime do not dream. This task will introduce some Eastern European city of culture.