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经济

也门经济落后,是世界上最不发达的国家之一。1991年海湾战争和1994年内战使国民经济严重倒退。1995年,也门政府开始经济、财政和行政改革。1996-2000年,GDP年均增长5.5%,财政收入逐年增加。2001年财政首次实现盈余。2005年,也政府进一步出台削减燃油补贴、降低进口关税等经济改革措施,力求调整经济结构,改善投资环境,减轻政府财政负担,取得了一定成效,使也经济运行基本平稳,主要经济指标良好。  也经济发展主要依赖石油出口收入。目前已探明的石油可采储量约60亿桶,天然气可采储量约5000亿立方米。也门未参加任何石油组织,因而不受国际石油组织配额限制,在生产上较具自主性。政府极为重视石油的勘探和开采,力图通过开发石油和矿产资源克服经济困难。受益于国际市场的高油价,2005年,也石油出口收入达31亿美元,占财政收入的60%以上。 也门 此外,外援对推动也经济发展也发挥了重要作用。自1997年以来,从西方国家和国际金融组织获取援助和优惠贷款近30亿美元,被免除或重新安排债务70多亿美元。2002年10月,第三届也门捐赠国会议在巴黎举行。美、英、法、世界银行、国际货币基金组织等34个国家和国际地区组织在会上允诺于2003-2005年间向也提供总额为23亿美元的经济援助。2003年10月,欧盟承诺在2003-2006年间向也援助9170万欧元。此外,世界银行及阿拉伯国家的基金会亦向也提供了共约10亿美元。也还是美国和欧盟等西方国家在该地区的主要受援国,美、英、德、意、法、荷、日等西方国家每年向也提供的双边援助大都在3000万美元左右。 主要经济数据(2005年): 国内生产总值:156亿美元。 人均国内生产总值:约750美元。 国内生产总值增长率:4.6%。 通货膨胀率:10%。 外债:53.81亿美元。 货币名称:里亚尔(YER)。 官方汇率:1美元=194里亚尔。 资源 除石油外,也门还有铜、铁、铝、铬、镍、钴、金、银、煤、盐、大理石、硫磺、石油、天然气、石膏等。 工业 有纺织、石油、化工、制铝、制革、水泥、建材、卷烟、食品及加工工业。80年代中期开始开采石油。2000年也门发电量为32亿千瓦时。 农业 全国有可耕地166万公顷,已耕地面积约127万公顷。农业人口约占全国人口的75%。农产品主要有棉花、咖啡、高粱、谷子、玉米、大麦、豆类、芝麻、卡特和烟叶等。粮食不能自给,一半依靠进口,棉花和咖啡可供出口。 交通运输 全国无铁路。 公路:总长69263公里,其中柏油路9963公里,非柏油路59300公里。 空运:也门有5个主要的空港,萨那、亚丁、里扬、塔兹和荷台达,共有机场49个,其中14个机场拥有柏油跑道;萨那、亚丁和里扬机场为国际机场。1996年5月,原南、北方的两家国营航空公司合并成立“也门航空公司”,也门政府控股51%,沙特政府占股49%,共有民航飞机20架。 海运:有港口7个。亚丁港是最大港口,有泊位30个,可停靠万吨级货轮;荷台达港年吞吐量150万吨;木哈港年吞吐量35万吨;此外还有穆卡拉港等。 财政金融 2006年度财政预算总收入约54亿美元,总支出约61亿美元,预算赤字约7亿美元。截至2005年11月,外汇储备为63亿美元,至2005年底外债总额为53.81亿美元。 对外贸易 实行进口许可证制度。运输工具、机械设备等国内建设所需物资以及大量轻工产品均需进口。出口产品主要有石油、棉花、咖啡、烟叶、香料和海产品等。主要贸易伙伴有中国、美国、阿联酋、意大利、沙特等。2005年,也大幅降低进口关税,小麦、面粉等81种商品免税进口,另有4千余种商品平均出口税率从25%降至5%。 近年进出口情况如下(单位:亿美元): 2002年 2003年2004年2005年 出口 33.73 36.444656.5 进口 27.46 33.563746 差额 6.27 2.88910.5

Yemen's economic backwardness, is one of the world's least developed countries. The Gulf War in 1991 and 1994 civil war make national economy suffered a serious setback. In 1995, the government of Yemen began economic, financial and administrative reform. 1996-2000 years, the average annual GDP growth of 5.5%, fiscal revenue increased year by year. In 2001 the first implementation of fiscal surplus. In 2005, the government has also further reduce fuel subsidies, reduce import tariffs and other economic reform measures, in order to adjust the economic structure, improve the investment environment, reduce the financial burden of the government, and achieved certain results, make economy basically stable, the main economic indicators of good. Economic development mainly relies on oil export revenues. The current proven recoverable oil reserves of about 6000000000 barrels of oil, natural gas recoverable reserves of about 500000000000 cubic meters. Yemen did not participate in any oil group, and thus not subject to quota restrictions on international oil organization, more autonomy in production. The government attaches great importance to the exploration and exploitation of petroleum, trying to overcome the economic difficulties by developing oil and mineral resources. Benefit from the international market, high oil prices, in 2005, and oil export revenues of $3100000000, accounting for more than 60% of revenue. Yemen In addition, foreign aid to promote economic development has played an important role in. Since 1997, obtain the assistance and preferential loans of nearly $3000000000 from the western countries and international financial organizations, be exempted or reschedule debt of $about 7000000000. In 2002 October, Yemen donor conference third was held in Paris. America, Britain, France, the world bank, the International Monetary Fund and other 34 countries and international and regional organizations committed to 20032005 years to provide $2300000000 of financial aid at the meeting. In 2003 October, the EU pledged 91700000 euros to also in the period of 2003-2006. In addition, the world bank and the Arabia state foundation also to provide a total of about $1000000000. Also USA and the European Union and other western countries in the area of the main recipient, American, English, German, Italian, Dutch, law, Japan and other western countries each year to the bilateral also provides about $30000000 in aid mostly. The main economic data (2005): GDP: $15600000000. GDP per capita: $750. GDP growth rate: 4.6%. The inflation rate: 10%. External debt: $5381000000. Currency name: rial (YER). The official exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 194 riyal. Resources Besides oil, Yemen copper, iron, aluminum, and nickel, chromium, cobalt, gold, silver, coal, salt, marble, sulfur, oil, natural gas, gypsum etc.. Industry Textile, petroleum, chemical, aluminum, cement, building materials, leather, tobacco, food and processing industry. Oil production began in mid 80. Yemen power capacity in 2000 to 3200000000 kwh. Agriculture There are 1660000 hectares of arable land, arable land area of about 1270000 hectares. Agricultural population accounts for about 75% of the population. The main agricultural products are cotton, sorghum, millet, corn, Coffee, barley, beans, sesame, Carter and tobacco. Food insufficiency, half rely on imports, cotton and Coffee available for export. Transportation National no railway. Highways: total length of 69263 kilometers, the road 9963 km, 59300 km of non asphalt road. By air: Yemen has 5 main airport, Sana'a, Aden, Yang, Tazi and Hodeidah, a total of 49 airports, of which 14 airport tarmac Sana'a, Aden has; and Riyan airport is an international airport. In 1996 May, the original South, north two state-run Airlines merged to form the "Yemen Airlines", Yemen government holding 51%, the Saudi government shares accounted for 49%, a total of 20 aircraft of civil aviation. Marine: port 7. Aden port is the largest port, berth 30, can accommodate up to 10000 ton freighters; Hodeidah port throughput of 1500000 tons; Muha port throughput of 350000 tons; in addition to Mukalla port etc.. Fiscal and financial The 2006 fiscal year budget revenue of about $5400000000, spending about $6100000000, about $700000000 budget deficit. As of 2005 November, foreign exchange reserves of $6300000000, to the end of 2005 the total external debt of $5381000000. Foreign trade Import license system. The means of transport, machinery and equipment and other domestic construction materials and a large number of light industrial products have to be imported. The main export products are oil, cotton, tobacco, spice and Coffee, seafood etc.. Major trading partners, the United Arab Emirates, Italy, Chinese USA, Saudi arabia. In 2005, also sharply reduce import tariffs, wheat, flour and other 81 kinds of duty-free imports, and more than 4 kinds of products the average export rate from 25% to 5%. In recent years, the import and export situation is as follows (unit: USD): 2002 2003 2004 2005 Exports of 33.73 36.444656.5 Imported 27.46 33.563746 The difference of 6.27 2.88910.5

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