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新西兰 新西兰(英语:New Zealand,旧译鸟施仑;毛利语:Aotearoa,音译:“奥特亚罗瓦”,意为“长白云之乡”,通称新西兰),是个岛屿国家,1907年9月26日独立,位于太平洋西南部,相距澳大利亚约1,600海里。新西兰两大岛屿以库克海峡分隔,南岛邻近南极洲,北岛与斐济及汤加相望。新西兰人自称Kiwi。

长方形,长宽之比为2:1。旗地为深蓝色,左上方为英国国旗,右边有四颗镶白边的红色五角星,四颗星排列均不对称。新西兰是英联邦成员国,“米”字图案表明同英国的传统关系;四颗星表示南十字星座,表明该国位于南半球,同时还象征独立和希望。

New Zealand became a self-governing British colony in 1856, became in 1907 the autonomous region, to fully independent in 1947. New Zealand 50000000 years had been uninhabited, until the year tenth Century, only from the Cook islands and Tahiti's Polynesian navigator canoe came to new zealand. By the year twelfth Century, the national popular area has been distributed many settlements; in 1642, Holland navigator Abel Janson Tasman in an ocean adventure is found in the west coast of New Zealand District in 1642, but in an attempt to landed under the attack and quickly leave, but he with an area of Holland land (named for Nieuw Zeeland), he made part of the west coast of the map, but not on the landing; in 1769, the British navy captain James Cook and his crew became the first set foot on the New Zealand land European people, then people fishing, seal and whale also came here, missionaries soon follow close on Succession, settlements began to set up. By 1840, the New Zealand Maori population estimates for 100000 people, about 2000 of European settlers (Maori called Pakeha, white) distributed in coastal area, New Zealand was no national government or national leaders, Maori and white groups asked the UK provides some protection and law and order; in February 6, 1840, the Maori and the British royal family signed "Huai Tang Iranian treaty" in the bay of islands with Tang Yizhen, the treaty to New Zealand to become a colony of the royal family, the treaty is considered to be New Zealand's founding documents, the treaty makes early exploiter has the right to settle in New Zealand and the Maori according to their willingness to continue to own their land, forests and fisheries, the treaty the Maori will land and lifestyle to make their own decisions, and promised to establish a government, so that all the people live a peaceful and legal life, the treaty also established the New Zealand people enjoy the rights of citizens, the treaty is still "the paper", and is a New Zealand relate to the national relationship is very controversial topic. The treaty was signed, more people began to come to New Zealand to settle here, many people go to the southern island settlement, where land is suitable for farming, the deposit is also found in Otago and west coast region. Since the turn of the century, to the north of people living or than the south, to the 1890's, the population increased to five hundred thousand, and started the construction of railway and highway, the settlers established farms have become the pillar, the New Zealand economy in 1893, New Zealand became the first country to give women the right to vote of, at that time, Britain is still an important part of New Zealand culture is often known as the "Hometown", tens of thousands of people in New Zealand represented Britain in the first World War, by 1918, half of the participants in wars or wounded in the war. In 1935, New Zealand elected Labour government, the government carried out a series of social reforms, including a 40 hour work week and a state funded health and welfare system, started after the Second World War, New Zealand again sent troops, about ten percent of the population out of combat, after the end of the war, to increase, on New Zealand's farm the product demand 1950's rapid growth, full employment, industrial prosperity. Due to the import (especially oil) and on the meat, dairy products and wool export dependence, New Zealand's economy began to deteriorate in the 1970's and early 1970's, in 1980, when Britain joined the European community, New Zealand lost its traditional export markets, is followed by unemployment and social problems in the late 1980's,; the Labour government began to carry out monetary policy, industrial new restrictions, cancel allowances and the reform of privatization of many government departments on a large scale, since the economy began to gradually improving, unemployment began to decline. Begin from 90 time later period New Zealand has experienced sustained economic growth, the unemployment rate to a record low of 3.5%.

新西兰英国女王是新西兰的国家元首,女王任命的总督作为其代表行使管理权。总督与内阁组成的行政会议是法定的最高行政机构。内阁掌握实权,由议会多数党组成。议会只设众议院(共120席),由普选产生,任期3年。无成文宪法,其宪法是由英国议会和新西兰议会先后通过的一系列法律和修正案以及英国枢密院的某些决定所构成。新西兰民主政府以混合式多议席选区比例代表制(Mixed Member Proportional)国会运作,有一百二十个席位。新西兰法律规定毛利人至少有六个保障席位,而政党的选举过程也要有额外的毛利代表。目前国会中有十七位毛利议员。新西兰政府为联合执政,由工党(Labour Party)与进步联盟(Progressive Coalition),加上两个少数政党——绿党(Green Party)与联合未来党(United Future Party)的援助所组成。现在的新西兰总理为John Key。高法院、上诉法院、高等法院、若干地方法院和受理就业、家庭、生产、毛利人事务、环境等特殊问题的专门法院。上诉法院由首席大法官、院长和另外六名高等法院法官组成。英国枢密院司法委员会为终审法院。2003年10月14日,新议会通过《最高法院法案》,2004年7月1日成立最高法院,新与英国枢密院间的联系彻底终止。现执政党为新西兰国家党(National Party),上一任执政党为新西兰工党,其他党派还有进步联盟党(Progressive Party)、新西兰第一党(NZ First Party)、新西兰行动党(ACT New Zealand)、绿党(Green Party)、新西兰联合未来党(United Future NZ Party)、太平洋精神党(Mauri Pacific)、保守党(Conservative Party)、民主党(Democratic Party)、基督教遗产党(Christian Heritage)等。

New Zealand has long Aotearoa (The land of the long white cloud) as the New Zealand belong to Oceania, located in the southern Pacific Ocean, about 1600 km southeast of Australia, between Antarctica and the equator, Western Australia across the Tasman Sea and the sea, north of New Caledonia, Tang Jia, Fiji, between latitude 34 degrees to 47 degrees. New Zealand consists of some island, South Island, Kitajima island and nearby Stewart, area kilometer of 27 square, the exclusive economic zone of 1200000 square kilometers. 6900 km long coastline. New Zealand are renowned for their "green". Although the territory is mountainous, mountains and hills occupy more than 75% of the total area, but here is a temperate climate, four seasons is not temperature, very lush plant growth, the forest coverage rate reached 29%, natural ranch or farm land area accounts for half of. Vast forests and pastures to New Zealand to become be worthy of the name of the green kingdom. New Zealand is rich in water resources, 80% of the hydroelectric power. Forest area accounts for about 29% of land area, the ecological environment is very good. Kitajima more volcano and hot springs, glaciers and lakes over the South island. The first peak in the North Island Ruapehu volcano 2797 meters high, New Zealand's largest lake volcano on Lake Taupo, an area of 616 square kilometers. South Island across the south latitude 40 ° ~47 °, with the first peak national Mount Cook island. The Alps in the Franz Joseph glacier and Fawkes glacier, is the world's lowest elevation of the glacier. A series of glacial lake mountain, which Archi brain Lake area of 342 square kilometers, is the second largest lake in new zealand. Southerland waterfall, drop 580 meters, ranking top in the world. The climate of New Zealand is a temperate maritime climate, seasons are opposite and the northern hemisphere. New Zealand's December to February for the summer, from June to August for the winter. In summer, the average temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, 10 degrees Celsius in winter, the annual temperature less than 15 degrees. The annual average rainfall is 400~1200 mm. The environment of New Zealand approximately one hundred million years ago were separated from the mainland, so many of the original plant and animal survival and evolution in isolated environment. In addition to the unique plant and animal, there are diverse topography of magnificent natural landscape. New Zealand from Gondwana (Gondwanaland) after separation, these primitive species in this land of independent evolution and reproduction, the famous naturalist David Bellamy (David Bellamy) said here is "moas Ark" (Moa's Ark), a huge bird walk "Samoa the specific name is derived from the New Zealand (MOA," also known as terror birds), but is now extinct. Since human being began to settle in New Zealand, the short period of 1000 years has caused the disappearance of many native species, but in recent years the government of New Zealand has increased the natural protection efforts, the situation has improved a great deal. Protection measures including the pest eradication of wild animal protection area, the establishment of 13 national parks, 3 Ocean Park, hundreds of nature reserves and ecological zones, 1 marine and wetland conservation network, as well as the protection of rivers and lakes in particular. New Zealand there are approximately 30% of the land for protected areas. In addition, as kakapo parrots, Huia, kiwi and lizards and other rare and endangered species research and management plans are executed. Administrative regionalization of China is divided into 12 regions: the northern region (Northland), Oakland district (Auckland), Waikato (Waikato), bay of plenty (Bay

矿产资源分布新西兰是一个现代、繁荣的发达国家。2006年国内生产总值为1038.73亿美元(2006年,世界第53名);人均29,698美元(世界第27名);人类发展指数为0.943(高,世界第19名,有所上升)。畜牧业是新西兰经济的基础,新西兰农牧产品出口量占其出口总量的50%,羊肉、奶制品和粗羊毛的出口量均居世界第一位。新西兰还是世界上最大的鹿茸生产国和出口国,生产量占世界总产量的30%。矿藏主要有煤、金、铁矿、天然气,还有银、锰、钨、磷酸盐、石油等,但储量不大。石油储量3000万吨,天然气储量为1700亿立方米。森林资源丰富,森林面积810万公顷,占全国土地面积的30%,其中630万公顷为天然林,180万公顷为人造林,主要产品有原木、圆木、木浆、纸及木板等。渔产丰富。工业以农林牧产品加工为主,主要有奶制品、毛毯、食品、酿酒、皮革、烟草、造纸和木材加工等轻工业,产品主要供出口。农业高度机械化。主要农作物有小麦、大麦、燕麦、水果等。粮食不能自给,需从澳大利亚进口。畜牧业发达,是新西兰经济的基础。畜牧业用地为1352万公顷,占国土面积的一半。乳制品与肉类是新最重要的出口产品。粗羊毛出口量居世界第一位,占世界总产量的25%。新西兰渔产丰富,是世界第四大专属经济区,200海里专属经济区内捕鱼潜力每年约50万吨。除了主要产业食物加工业(肉类与乳品)与工业之外,新西兰的食物加工技术、电讯、塑料、纺织、林木制品、电子、登山用品与服饰等方面的竞争力也越来越来强。近年来,特殊生活风格用品的业者,如帆船,也在急速增长。新西兰的股票指数NZX上各式各样的公司,正反映了这些产业。

New Zealand Maori Culture 400 million people, about 15% Maori descent, or belong to a tribe.



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