突尼斯今日气温查询突尼斯,斯法克斯,雷马达,加夫萨,加贝斯,比塞大,苏塞,苏塞等城市今日气温查询

突尼斯(Tunisia)位于非洲大陆最北端,北部和东部面临地中海,隔突尼斯海峡与意大利的西西里岛相望,扼地中海东西航运的要冲。东南与利比亚为邻,西与阿尔及利亚接壤。突尼斯是世界上少数几个集中了海滩、沙漠、山林和古文明的国家之一。突尼斯地处地中海地区的中央,拥有长达1300公里的海岸线。突尼斯被认为是悠久文明和多元文化的融和之地。突尼斯的气候温和,即使在冬天也是如此。迷人的沙滩、温和的气候、比邻欧洲的地理优势、物美价廉的商品、稳定的政治环境和热情好客的风土人情,使许多国际会议都选择在此召开。

环境气候162155平方公里。位于非洲北端,西与阿尔及利亚为邻。东南与利比亚接壤,北、东临地中海,隔突尼斯海峡与意大利相望。地形复杂。北部多山,中西部为低地和台地;东北部为沿海平原,南部为沙漠。最高峰舍阿奈比山海拔1544米。境内水系不发达。最大河流迈杰尔达河,流域面积约2.4万平方公里。北部属亚热带地中海型气候。中部属热带草原气候。南部属热带大陆性沙漠气候。八月为最热月,日均温21°C—33°C;1月为最冷月,日均温6°C—14°C。 自然资源主要有磷酸盐、石油、天然气、铁、铝、锌等。已探明储量:磷酸盐20亿吨,石油7000万吨,天然气615亿立方米,铁矿石2500万吨。 人口991.0872万(2004年4月底)。90%以上为阿拉伯人,其余为柏柏尔人。阿拉伯语为国语,通用法语。伊斯兰教为国教,主要是逊尼派;少数人信奉天主教、犹太教。 行政区划全国划分为24个省,下设254个县,240个市镇。 24个省情况如下: 省 Governorate 面积(km)首府  卡夫 Le Kef 4,965 卡夫 Le Kef 马赫迪耶 Mahdia 2,966  莫纳斯提尔 Monastir 1,019  卡塞林 Kasserine 8,066  凯鲁万 Kairouan 6,712  艾尔亚奈 Ariana 1,558  巴杰 Béja 3,558  比塞大 Bizerte 3,685  本阿鲁斯 Ben Arous 761 坚杜拜 Jendouba3,102 梅德宁 Médenine8,588 马努巴 Manouba  纳布勒 Nabeul2,788 加贝斯 Gabès7,175 加夫萨 Gafsa8,990 吉比利 Kébili22,084 斯法克斯 Sfax7,545 西迪布济德 Sidi Bouzid6,994 锡勒亚奈 Siliana4,631 苏塞 Sousse2,621 泰塔温 Tataouine38,889 托泽尔 Tozeur4,719 突尼斯 Tunis346 宰格万 Zaghouan2,768 突尼斯 Tunisia163,610 

Islam is the state religion in Tunisia, Tunisia, Medina and Jerusalem, Mecca "known as the four holy places of islam. Islam has a profound influence on people's life in tunisia. President of the Republic of religion must be Islam, in the performance of their duties, to swear to the "Almighty God". The capital Tunis, Tunisia in Tunis, (Tunis) is located in the northern Gulf of Tunis from East, on the Mediterranean coast. Suburban area of 1500 square kilometers, with a population of 2080000 (2001). Is a national political, economic, cultural center and transportation hub. 1000 years BC, the Phoenicians Carthage in Tunisia, the sea, and become a well-known in the history of slavery in the Carthaginian Empire, when the flower, Tunisia is a seaside town outskirts of carthage. After the Romans burnt carthage. In 698 ad, the Umayyad Dynasty governor's horse ordered the demolition of the residual wall and buildings, in Tunisia this city address built Medina City, and the construction of port, dock, so that the residents migrated. To become the second largest city after the Kairouan at that time. Strong hafsid Dynasty (1230 - 1574) period, the official capital of Tunis, and be busy at putting up installations, build Pardo palace, the extension bar Guwang - Carthage canal project, put the water into the palace and residential renovation, Arabia market, the establishment of government district "Casbah", culture and art is also the corresponding development. Tunis became the Maghreb's cultural center. In 1937 by the French colonialists occupation, in 1957 after the establishment of the Republic of Tunisia, was made the capital. Tunisia Tunis city by the traditional old Medina and Europeanization of Metro. The old Medina still keep having an antique flavour of Arabia Oriental color. The old city wall is not exist, but there are nearly ten gates is well preserved, including new city connected Haimen, and old city and suburb of Sukamen. "Casbah" area is the prime minister and the ruling party headquarters location. The town is also called "low city", is located in the Medina link to low-lying beach. Since 1881, started the construction of the French colonial period. The busiest street in downtown is bourguiba Avenue, on both sides of the green shade, bookstall, flower stalls dotted; Main Street East is the Republic Square, here stands a bronze statue of the president bourguiba; for the Merdeka Square, the ancient name of a Tunisian historian Kalltown copper like. The east town not far away is the train station and harbour; to the north, Baer Weidai park scenic area. Northeast outskirt is famous historic site of Carthage, traditional architectural forms, Marsa beach town of Sidi Bbu Said, and to the Sea Port Portal ancient wright. The magnificent palace near the Mediterranean, located in Carthage ruins beside the coffee. A bardo ancient palace is 3 kilometers to the west, is now the national assembly and the bardo National Museum location. The Northwest University city. South and southwest suburbs industrial zone. Ancient Rome ditch aqueduct from the western agricultural area by the famous. Tunisia has beautiful scenery, pleasant climate, and close to the Europe, often become a center of international meetings, since 1979, Arabia Union headquarters here.

公元前9世纪初,腓尼基人在今突尼斯湾沿岸地区建立迦太基城,后发展为奴隶制强国。公元前146年,成为罗马帝国的阿非利加省的一部分。公元5~6世纪先后被汪达尔人和拜占庭人占领。公元703年被阿拉伯穆斯林征服,开始阿拉伯化。13世纪哈夫斯王朝建立了强大的突尼斯国家。1574年沦为土耳其奥斯曼帝国的一个省。1881年成为法国保护领地。1955年法被迫同意实行内部自治。1956年3月20日法国承认突尼斯独立。1957年7月25日,突制宪会议通过决议,废黜国王,废除君主制度,建立共和国;同时任命哈比卜·布尔吉巴为第一任总统。1959年11月布尔吉巴在首次普选中当选总统,1975年经议会批准,布成为终身总统。1987年11月7日,总理本·阿里接替布尔吉巴任共和国总统。

Tunisia in June 1, 1959, the parliament passed the first constitution of the Republic, regulation process is free, independent and sovereign state, the Republic regime. In 1975 March, the draft amendment of the constitution, declare bourguiba president for life's Republic of china. In 1988 July, through a constitutional amendment, "" President for life "terms such as 8, to increase the" campaign for the Senate age "," the president vacancies by the speaker as interim president "etc.. In 1998 October by amending the Constitution and electoral law, reduce the presidential candidacy for age, expand the range. The presidential term of five years, renewable two. In 2002 May, held for the first time after independence referendum, the amendment to the constitution. Abolition of restrictions on the number of presidential re-election, and will be the presidential candidate of the upper age limit to 75 years old. In addition, the new constitution has also increased the democratic and legal content. The parliament was unicameral national assembly, set. The constitution amendment in 2002 changed to a bicameral legislature, the national assembly and the senate. National Council for a term of five years, has seven Permanent committee. Parliament supervision of government work and the right to the no confidence motion against the government. In 1989 April, Tunisia presidential and legislative elections, Ben Ali was elected president, the ruling Constitutional Democratic Union won all the seats. In 1994, reelected president Ben Ali, the first multi-party parliamentary constitution, the overwhelming majority of the resulting from independent. In 1999 October, held after independence in sudden first multi-party presidential election, Ben Ali to high ticket again reelected president, legislative elections at the same time, increase the opposition seats, the constitution still hold a majority. President Ben Ali 10 years, to carry out "to stabilize strives for the development, the basic national policy to promote stability", to consolidate the constitution status, gradually promoting political pluralism, the process of long-term political stability, sustained economic development. The good neighborly, neutrality, non aligned foreign policy. In 2005 July, held its first election for senator process, the establishment of the senate. In August, President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to reshuffle the cabinet and the constitutional union leadership. At present, sudden political stability, Ben Ali stable ruling position. In 2006, Ben Ali launched amnesty, higher wages, tax cuts and a series of measures, for the people, consolidate the ruling basis. At the same time, the control process of multi-party democracy in constitutional democracy ruling status, leading opposition parties, politics, and gradually expand the freedom of the press, reduce the western countries in democracy, human rights pressure. At present, sudden political stability, Ben Ali to further consolidate its ruling position. Constitutional democracy and process the social from all walks of life has begun campaigning for re-election in 2009 Ben Ali. In December 17, 2010, southern Tunisia students protesting urban management confiscated stalls and died. Then the protests "brutality" and bloody clashes with the National Guard, causing heavy casualties. 2011

突尼斯以农业为主,但粮食不能自给。工业以石油和磷酸盐开采、制造业和加工工业为主。旅游业较发达,在国民经济中占重要地位。1986年,突经济实行“结构调整计划”,由计划经济向市场经济过渡。1995年突与欧盟签署联系国协议后,突深化经济结构调整,加快企业升级改造和私有化步伐,同时加强基础设施建设,推进金融领域改革,积极发展外向型经济。多年来,突经济持续稳定发展,GDP年均增长约5%。近年来,突移动通讯、因特网、电子商务和高科技产业等领域发展迅速。2006年,在达沃斯世界经济论坛全球综合竞争力排行榜上,名列世界第30位,居非洲、阿拉伯国家之首。突在全世界155国劳动环境领域排行榜上名列58位,领先意大利、中国和埃及等。贫困率下降至4%以下。至2006年底,外国在突共有2803家外资企业。2007年,在达沃斯世界经济论坛全球综合竞争力排行榜上,名列世界第29位,仍居非洲、阿拉伯国家之首。2007年1月,突完成审议关于2007-2011年“十一五”发展计划总体发展模式和政策。目前突经济面临主要问题是国内市场狭小,资源匮乏,过分依赖欧盟。    突尼斯货币各大行业工矿业:主要有以磷酸盐为原料的化工业和石油开采业。2005年原油产量为340.4万吨,天然气产量为23.44亿立方米,磷酸盐376万吨(2004年),铁矿石16.4万吨(2003年),锌6.6万吨(2003年)。纺织业在轻工业中居首位,产值为10.76亿第纳尔。自1986年起,纺织、皮革产品出口额已超过化肥、原油。2005年工业总产值为59.74亿第纳尔,工业增长率为2.5%。(资料来源:2006年经济季评国别报告)    农业:全国可耕地面积900万公顷,已耕地500万公顷,其中7%为水浇地,约34.5万公顷。由于盐碱化、沙漠化等因素,每年约有2万公顷耕地流失。农业在国民生产总值中占13-16%,2005年农业和渔业总产值为25.31亿第纳尔,增长率为5%。全国劳动力的35%从事农业。正常年景粮食自给率60%。2005年粮食产量为210万吨。(资料来源:2006年经济季评国别报)突尼斯橄榄油突尼斯是橄榄油主要生产国之一,产量占世界橄榄油总产量的4-9%,橄榄油成为突主要的出口创汇农产品。全国种植橄榄6200万株,占地162.5万公顷。2005年产橄榄油22万吨,产柑橘26.2万吨,椰枣11.3万吨。全国有天然和人工牧场29万公顷。2003年牛、羊、山羊存栏数分别为41.5万头、392.4万只和80.1万只。2005年肉类总产量为11.78万吨,鲜奶产量92万吨,鱼产量10.8万吨。(资料来源:2006年经济季评国别报告)    旅游业:旅游业在国民经济中居重要地位,是突第一大外汇来源。2006年旅游收入为27.51亿第纳尔,同比增长6.3%;接待游客654.91万人次,同比增长2.7%。2005年,全国约800家旅馆拥有23万张床位,居非洲和阿拉伯国家前列。直接或间接从事旅游业人员达35万人,约占全国人口的3.6%,解决了12%的劳动力就业问题。旅游设施主要分布在东部沿海地带,有五大旅游中心,苏斯“康达维”中心是全国最大的旅游基地。突尼斯市、苏斯、莫纳斯提尔、崩角和杰尔巴岛是著名的旅游区。(资料来源:2006年经济季评国别报告)金融贸易 财政金融:2007年财政预算收支基本平衡,均为144.6亿第纳尔,比2006年增长1.8%。至2006年底,外汇储备66.48亿美元,外债率为49.1%。2005年外债总额为161亿美元。 突尼斯石油产业对外贸易:1986年以来,突推行贸易自由化政策,迄今自由进口的商品额占进口总额的85%,自由出口的商品额占出口总额的95%。突主要出口产品是纺织品、电机设备、石油制品、机械、橄榄油、鞋、毛皮制品、化肥、化学制品等。2004年纺织品仍居突出口首位,出口额为33.33亿美元,占出口总额达37.2%。进口产品主要是纺织品、机械、电气设备、石油制品、车辆及钢铁、谷物等。(资料来源:2005年经济季评国别报告)外国资本:2006年,突共获外国直接投资达11.57亿第纳尔,比上年增长33.1%。主要来自欧盟、美国和阿拉伯国家。至2006年底,突共吸纳外国直接投资(能源除外)累计达112.13亿第纳尔,提供27.4万个就业岗位。外国援助:“九五”期间(1997-2001年),突共获外国提供的各类援款132.17亿第纳尔,其中,外国投资36.37亿第纳尔,赠款3.77亿第纳尔,各类贷款92.04亿第纳尔。2004年获得外国官方发展援助5.39亿美元。2005年侨汇收入10.09亿美元。(资料来源:2006年经济季评国别报告)交通铁路:总长2190多公里,其中轨距1米的窄轨铁路占1713公里,余为轨距1.44米的铁路。国营铁路公司拥有机车136辆,货车皮5267节。2003年客运总量为3570万人次,货运量为21.74亿吨/公里。    公路:总长2万公里。2003年公路客运量6.92亿人次,货运量11.84万吨。陆路运输目前占突尼斯货运总量的50%,客运总量的90%。1997年突开始修建2500公里公路和2000公里农用道路。至2005年底,突拥有各类机动车辆110万辆。   海运:有30个港口,其中8个为大型商业港口,一个为石油转运港。有两支船队,总吨位22.4万吨。主要港口是突尼斯-古莱特、比塞大、布尔基巴、斯法克斯、加贝斯、苏斯、扎尔西斯、拉迪斯及斯基拉港等,2003年客运总量52.9万人次。   空运:有两个国营航空公司,主要是突尼斯航空公司。全国共有91架各型号客机。突与国内外44个城市通航。年客运总量为1200万人次。2003年突尼斯航空公司客运量790万人次,较上年下降2.1%。全国有7个国际机场:突尼斯-迦太基、莫纳斯蒂尔-卡奈斯、杰尔巴-扎尔齐斯、斯法克斯-蒂纳、杜泽尔-内夫塔、塔巴卡-11.7和加夫萨-盖斯尔。 生活突尼斯突尼斯自20世纪七十年代以来,实行对基本食品实施物价补贴的社会福利政策。90年代后,政府开始缩小补贴范围,减少补贴费用,分期提高基本食品价格,同时采取措施,保护困难户和低工资收入者的购买力。2004年突最低工资收入为218.19第纳尔(每周48小时)和 189.8第纳尔(每周40小时)。2001年全国78%的人拥有自己的住房,74%的居民享受医疗保险,8%的居民持有免费医疗证。2006年,社会保障覆盖率达90.4%。全国卫生系统共有各类医务人员和职工4万人,2004年全国平均每1200人有一名医生,平均每6500人有一名牙医,平均每330人有一名护士。医疗设施分公立医院、私人医院和个人诊所,以公立医院为主,共176所,有17269张床位,私人医院有床位1800张,另有卫生站1050个。全国有21%的家庭拥有汽车,90%的家庭拥有电视机,82%的家庭拥有冰箱,34%的家庭拥有洗衣机,6%的家庭拥有空调,36%的家庭拥有固定电话,55%的人拥有手机,90%的家庭享有饮用水和供电。2004年人口增长率为1.21%,人均寿命73岁,婴儿死亡率2.1%。2005年,突贫困率为3.9%,贫困家庭8万户。(资料来源:2005年经济季评国别报告)

In 1956 the establishment of the national army, in 1959 the establishment of the Navy and air force. The president is the commander in chief of the armed forces. 1975 compulsory military service, the service period of a year. The total strength of about 40000 people. Army of 31000 people, including 3 mechanized infantry brigade, 1 brigade, the 1 Special Forces Group and 8 group, with various types of tanks and armored vehicles, 405 vehicles, 482 artillery pieces, 156 missiles (with). The Navy's 5000 people, have all kinds of 40 ships. The air force 4500 people, there are various types of military aircraft more than 70 aircraft, 80 helicopters frame. The national guard is about 40000. Military equipment mainly from France, Italy, American.



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