索马里今日气温查询摩加迪沙,摩加迪沙等城市今日气温查询

索马里 索马里(索马里语:Soomaaliya ,阿拉伯语:الصومال‎),全称索马里联邦共和国(索马里语:Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya ,阿拉伯语:جمهورية الصومال‎‎),是东非国家之一,位于索马里半岛上,东濒印度洋,北临亚丁湾,与埃塞俄比亚、肯尼亚、吉布提相邻,原首都为摩加迪沙(Mogadishu)。索马利亚处于内战状态,而位于该国西北部的索马利兰与倾向于统合的中部邦特兰以及西南索马利亚均为实质独立。1960年6月26日,英属索马里独立。2013年1月17日,美国宣布承认索马里政府。

国旗国旗呈长方形,长与宽之比为3:2。旗地为浅蓝色,正中一颗白色五角星。浅蓝色是联合国旗帜的颜色,因联合国是索马里托管和独立的创议者。五角星象征非洲的自由和独立;五个角分别代表原索马里的五个地区;意属索马里(现称南区)、英属索马里(现称北区)、法属索马里(现已获得独立的吉布提)、以及现在的肯尼亚和埃塞俄比亚的一部分。 国徽图案中间为盾徽,盾面上是索马里国旗。盾徽上端为一顶王冠,象征独立,两侧各有一只索马里豹,象征威严、勇敢、坚强和力量。盾徽下方交叉着两把矛和两片棕榈叶,还饰有一条绶带。 独立日7月1日(1960年)  国庆日10月21日(1969年)

Thirteenth Century has been the establishment of the feudal empire. From the beginning of 1840, English, Italian, French colonialists have invaded and carved up somalia. In 1887 northern became a British protectorate in 1885; Italy began the invasion of central, to 1925, the whole of South into Italy colony. During the Second World War, the British occupation of Italian somaliland. After the Second World War, the 1949 UN resolution to the invasion and occupation of Italy District, Italy managed to. Britain, Italy has forced agreed in 1960 to British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland independence, the two merged to form the Republic of Somalia in July 1st of the same year. In October 21, 1969 changed the name as the Somali Democratic republic. 1976 established in July "the Somali revolutionary socialist party" and over all the power of the Supreme Council of the revolution, President Siad. The Somali BC 1700 years, Africa corner appeared namely is famous for its spicy "bond" country. The seventh Century ad, Arabs and Persians constantly moved in, the establishment of trade points and a plurality of Sultan in the Gulf of Aden and India ocean. In 1887, the north into British "cable protection", known as "Somaliland"; in 1925, southern Somalia became the Italy colony, called "Italian somaliland". In 1941 the British control of the whole of somalia. June 26, 1960 July 1st cable cable, independent, independent south region, now the two part north and south, merging, established the Republic of somalia. In 1969, the national army commander Mohamed Siad Barre cable (Mohamed Siad Barre) staged a coup, the establishment of the Somali Democratic republic. In 1991 January Siad regime was overthrown, cable into civil war, a plurality of regime. In 1991 February, Ali Mehdi Mohamed (Ali Mahdi Mohamed) to form a new government, the self proclaimed "interim president", changed the name of the "Republic of somali". In May 18, 1991, northern Somalia declared "independent, set up a" Republic of Somaliland, Abdulrahman Ahmed Ali Tour (Abdurahman Ahmed Ali Tour) as "President", in 1993 May, Mohamed Ibrahim Egal (Mohamed Ibrahim Egal) as "President", in 2002 April, died after the original "vice president" Dahir Rial Cassin (Dahir Riyale Kahin) in May 1st as "generation the president". In June 15, 1995, the leader of the largest cable armed factions Mohamed Farah Aideed (Mohamed Farah Aideed) announced the establishment of the interim government in Mogadishu, self appointed "President"; in August 4, 1996, his son Hossain Mohamed Aideed (Hussein Mohamed Aideed) in the old Aideed was killed after the succession "Interim president". In 1998 July, Abdullahi Yusuf (Abdullahi Yussuf) in cable northeast established "Puntland" local separatist government and president. In March 31, 2002, pull the Chinese Resistance Army (RRA) decided to set up the "southwestern Somalia", and the election of ancient Ashdod (Col. Hassan Mohamed the Nur Shrgudud) as chairman. The regime established in 1991 since February have not been international recognition. In January 29, 2004, representatives of the parties signed the transitional federal charter. In August 22nd, the Somali transitional National Council was established in Nairobi. In December, the Somali transitional government was established in Kenya. In 2005 June, the transitional government moved back home, but due to the lack of strength, can only work in the southern city of baidoa. In June 5, 2006, Somalia's Islamists defeated warlords alliance, and took control of mogadishu. In December 24th, Ethiopia acknowledged publicly for the first time in the internal armed conflict in somalia. In December 28th, the transitional government forces repulsed sect Armed Somali, stationed in mogadishu. In January 23, 2007, Ethiopia began to withdraw troops from somalia. In February 20th, the UN Security Council passed resolution 1744th, authorizing the deployment of Africa Union peacekeeping force in Somalia, in order to stabilize the local situation. In March 12th, Somalia's transitional parliament approved the transitional government moved back to the capital Mogadishu from baidoa. The winning Somali opposition groups "another Somalia liberation alliance" leader Shechcherif Sheikh Ahmed 31 in Djibouti, the capital city of Djibouti held a presidential election in somalia. In 2005 June, the transitional government moved back home, but due to the lack of strength, can only work in the southern city of baidoa. In June 5, 2006, Somalia's Islamists defeated warlords alliance, and took control of mogadishu. In December 24th, Ethiopia acknowledged publicly for the first time in the internal armed conflict in somalia. In December 28th, the transitional government forces repulsed sect Armed Somali, stationed in mogadishu. In January 23, 2007, Ethiopia began to withdraw troops from somalia. In February 20th, the UN Security Council passed resolution 1744th, authorizing the deployment of Africa Union peacekeeping force in Somalia, in order to stabilize the local situation. In March 12th, Somalia's transitional parliament approved the transitional government moved back to the capital Mogadishu from baidoa. In 2008 December, the transitional government collapse. In 2009 01 months 31 days, winning the Somali opposition groups, "another Somalia liberation alliance" leader Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed held in Djibouti's capital Djibouti, the Somali president election. In February 14th, according to United Nations political office for Somalia said, the Somali parliament by 414 votes to 9, to support the president Ahmad appointed Ali Samak (Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke) the son of Omar Samake, at present has dual Canadian and Somali nationality (Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke) as the new president of the government of prime minister, and will take office in February 20th. In July 1, 2012, Somali president Ahmad announced "the integration of domestic political forces in Somalia, maintaining territorial integrity", the state to federal system. In August 2nd the same year, the country into the "Federal Republic of somalia". In September 10, 2012, Somali president Mohamed Osman Java announced that Hassan Sheikh Mahmoud in the presidential election by a wide margin against the incumbent president of the transitional government of Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, was elected as the new president of Somalia, which means the ending the 21 year long period of political transition.

环境气候面积63万平方公里(1985年)。位于非洲大陆最东部的索马里半岛。北临亚丁湾,东濒印度洋,西接肯尼亚和埃塞俄比亚,西北界吉布提。 海岸线长3200公里。东部沿海为平原,沿岸多沙丘;亚丁湾沿岸低地为吉班平原;中部为海拔500-1,500米的索马里高原,自北向南和东南递降;北部多山;西南部为草原、半沙漠和沙漠。苏拉德山海拔2400米,为全国最高峰。主要河流有谢贝利河和朱巴河。 索马里全境以平缓的低高原为主,高度由北向南渐降。有沿海平原、内陆高原、北部山地等地形区。大部地区属热带沙漠气候,西南部属热带草原气候,终年高温,干燥少雨。年降水量自南而北从500-600毫米减至100毫米以下,荒漠、半荒漠和热带草原广布。除南部的朱巴河和谢贝利河外,其他河流均属间歇河。 自然资源主要有铁、锡、锰、钨、镍、铬、镁、锌、铝、铀、石英石、绿柱石和石膏等。此外,还有石油和天然气。除绿柱石和石膏外,大部矿藏均未开发。渔业资源丰富,森林覆盖率为13%。

Before the civil war in Somalia, Somalia is divided into 18 states: Awdal, Bakool, Kohler awdal banaadir Banaadir Barry Bari Baay Galguduud region of Dezhou worship, Gedo Gedo Xi Lanzhou Hiiraan Jubbada Dhexe under the Zhu Zhu Bazhou Bazhou Jubbada Hoose Mudug region, Sanaag Nugaal Mudug nugaal shabeellaha dhexe Shabeellaha Dhexe Shabeellaha Hoose sol Shabelle Sool Torg Dyer Togdheer Wogeyijialebei Dezhou Woqooyi Galbeed

1979年8月25日通过宪法规定:索是“工人阶级领导的社会主义国家”。实行总统制。总统为国家元首、部长会议主席和军队首脑。人民议会为最高立法机构。在国际社会的推动下,2004年索马里过渡政府成立。但由于缺乏实力以及国内复杂深刻的社会矛盾,过渡政府一直无法对全国实行有效控制,政府军与反政府武装仍然混战不断。2009年1月,索马里过渡议会批准将议席数增加一倍。迄今(2009年12月),索马里战乱已持续十几年之久,但仍没有恢复和平的迹象。过渡政府控制范围仅局限于摩加迪沙的总统府和机场、港口等少数几个战略要地,而首都其他地区以及该国中南部大部分城镇都在反政府武装控制下。  宪法现行宪法为索马里过渡宪章,于2004年2月,索马里和谈全体代表通过生效。规定伊斯兰教为国教。实行一院制,立法权归议会所有。政体为总统共和制,总统为国家元首,掌握实权。总理领导部长委员会工作,部长委员会对议会负责。过渡议会会期5年,由275人组成。 政党索马里索马里党派林立,带有强烈部族色彩,各派不断分化组合,最多时达30余个。目前主要党派有:(1)索马里民族运动(Somali National Movement):简称民运,1981年成立于伦敦,1982年在埃塞俄比亚的迪雷达瓦设总部。成员大部分为伊萨克族。系北方实力最强、影响最大的武装派别。1991年西亚德政权垮台后,控制整个西北部地区,宣布北方“独立”,成立“索马里兰共和国”。首任领导人阿卜杜拉赫曼·艾哈迈德·阿里·图尔。1993年5月,穆罕默德·易卜拉欣·埃加勒当选“总统”,1997年2月连任。2001年5月31日,索马里兰举行全民公决,通过含有独立条款的新宪法。7月,埃加勒因与反对派发生矛盾而在哈尔格萨成立“联合人民民主党”(Allied People's Democratic Party,索语简称UDUB,意为支柱),通过了党章并建立了中央委员会。2002年4月埃病逝,原“副总统”达希尔于5月1日就任“代总统”。(2)索马里救国民主阵线(Somali Salvation Democratic Front):简称救阵,成立于1979年,系最早成立的反政府组织。成员以达罗德族下属的米周提尼和杜尔巴亨特次部族为主。控制索东北部及中部地区。1993年分裂为两派,一派以救阵前任主席穆罕默德·阿布希尔·穆萨(Mohamed Abhsir Musse)为首,另一派以前任军事首领阿卜杜拉希·尤素福为首。1998年7月,尤素福联合东北部索马里民主联盟和索马里联合党等小派别,成立“邦特兰”自治政权,自任“总统”。2001年6月27日,尤操纵邦特兰议会表决,将其任期延长三年,遭到邦最高法院反对。11月14日,邦特兰全国代表大会选举贾马·阿里·贾马为邦特兰第二任主席,艾哈迈德·马哈穆德·古恩莱为副主席。尤素福拒绝承认选举结果,双方发生武装冲突。2002年8月,尤将贾及其支持者逐出邦特兰并宣布组成新一届“内阁”。(3)拉汉文抵抗军(Rahawayn Resistance Army):1995年4月成立。由拉汉文族人组成,主席兼总司令穆罕默德·努尔·夏尔古杜德(Mohamed Nur Shatihudud)。1999年12月9日,在巴伊-巴科尔地区建立自治政权。2000年,拉汉文抵抗军代表参加了阿尔塔和会,抵抗军秘书长德罗当选索过渡议会议长,而主席夏尔古杜德因未得到实惠,撤消了对和会及新政权的支持。2002年3月31日,拉汉文抵抗军(RRA)在拜多阿召开会议,决定成立“索马里西南国”,并选举夏尔古杜德为主席。不久,副主席加比尤和伊斯梅尔即与夏尔古杜德发生内讧,并将夏及其支持者逐出了拜多阿。(4)索马里民族联盟(Somali National Alliance):简称民盟,1992年成立,成员主要为哈维耶族。1995年6月分裂为以奥斯曼·哈桑·阿里·阿托(Osman Hassan Ali Ato)为首的民盟/阿托派和以穆罕默德·法拉赫·艾迪德为首的民盟/艾迪德派。1996年8月艾迪德去世后,其子侯赛因·穆罕默德·艾迪德继位。1999年,艾派因支持埃塞俄比亚反政府武装奥罗莫解放阵线与埃塞发生冲突,遭到重创。2001年,艾派与其他4个反对TNG的派别组成"索马里和解与恢复委员会"(SRRC)。(5)索马里爱国运动(Somali Patriotic Movement):简称爱运,1989年成立,成员主要为达罗德族下属欧加登次部族,是推翻西亚德政权的主要力量之一。控制南方的基斯马尤港及其附近地区。后因内讧分裂为两派。一派以艾哈迈德·奥马尔·杰斯(Ahmed Omar Jess)为首,成为民盟的组成部分之一,另一派以阿登·阿卜杜拉希·努尔(Aden Abdillahi Nur)为主席,由前总统西亚德的女婿摩根任副主席和军事首领(掌实权)。1999年6月,杰斯派与艾迪德派联手,从摩根手中夺取基斯马尤。摩根派主力被消灭。(6)索马里救国联盟(Somali Salvation Alliance):简称救盟。1993年成立,初期由索马里联合大会的阿里·迈赫迪·穆罕默德派与11个派别组成,成员主要为哈维耶族,迈赫迪任主席。控制摩加迪沙北部及其附近地区。1998年3月同艾迪德派结盟,共同在摩加迪沙组建贝纳迪尔行政机构,但经营不利。1999年5月,穆萨·苏迪(Musa Sude)夺权,控制救盟,迈赫迪退居国外。救盟转而与艾迪德派为敌。 

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