马里今日气温查询巴马科,巴马科等城市今日气温查询

马里 马里,位于非洲西部撒哈拉沙漠南缘,西邻毛里塔尼亚、塞内加尔,北、东与阿尔及利亚和尼日尔为邻,南接几内亚、科特迪瓦和布基纳法索,为内陆国。历史上曾是加纳帝国、马里帝国和桑海帝国的中心地区。全国有23个民族,经济以农牧业为主,工业基础薄弱,是联合国公布的世界最不发达国家之一。1960年6月20日,由塞内加尔和马里组成的马里联邦宣布脱离法国而独立。

传统非洲猎人聚会活动中,一个马里猎人将一条活蟒蛇像帽子一样顶在头上马里位于非洲西部撒哈拉沙漠南缘,西邻毛里塔尼亚、塞内加尔,北、东与阿尔及利亚和尼日尔为邻,南接几内亚、科特迪瓦和布基纳法索,为内陆国。北部为热带沙漠气候,干旱炎热。中、南部为热带草原气候。全年分为三个季节:3~5月为热季,6~10月为雨季,11~2月为凉季。热季最高气温达50℃,凉季最低气温为14℃。  马里全国有23个民族,主要有班巴拉(占全国人口的34%)、颇尔(11%)、塞努福(9%)和萨拉考列族(8%)等。各民族均有自己的语言。官方语言为法语,通用班巴拉语(1972年形成文字)。80%的居民信奉伊斯兰教,18%信奉传统拜物教,1.2%信奉天主教和基督教新教。提示:马里是疟疾高发区,防止蚊虫叮咬,需自备疟疾药品;马里为伊斯兰国家,不食猪肉。

Mali Mali history was a center area of Garner Empire, the Mali Empire and the Songhai empire. Become a French colony in 1895. 1958 May to become the "French community" in the Autonomous Republic of "". In 1959 April and Senegal formed the Federation of mali. In September 22, 1960, Modibo Keita was elected the first president of.

全国划分为8个大区和1个中央直辖管区(首都巴马科)。 重要城市:巴马科、卡伊、库里克罗、锡加索塞古、莫普提、通布图、加奥、基达尔、桑、捷内。 

Mali to implement the multi-party democracy, emphasizing the broad national reconciliation and unity, adhere to the multi-party negotiations, the improvement of people's living standard as the primary goal of government policy. The constitution of Mali constitution in 1991 July, 1992 1 menstrual approved by the referendum, in June put into practice. Constitution: the introduction of legislative, administrative, judicial separation of the three powers; the president elected by direct universal suffrage, a term of 5 years, may be re elected twice; the president is the head of state, appoint prime minister and minister, issued a decree, organising the referendum, the dissolution of Parliament, declared a state of emergency and other important administrative power; the National Assembly shall be vested with legislative and right of supervision; the government is headed by the supreme executive body of the presidency, is responsible to the national assembly; the independence of the judiciary; citizens thought, religion, belief, opinion, association, work, rest, private property is not violated, free enterprise and social relief right. Parliament the national assembly is the highest authority, the implementation of a hospital system. Members elected by universal suffrage for a term of 5 years. The main mechanism is composed of the executive board, special committees and parliamentary groups. It consists of the Supreme Court, the constitutional court, the high court, the administrative court, the court of appeal, court of first instance, felony court and other institutions. The Supreme Court is the court of final appeal, under the division of court and administrative financial institute. The high court by members of the national assembly, responsible for the trial involving the heads of state and senior officials of the lawsuit. The court of first instance as the court of first instance, the commercial court and district court in Bamako, public security, court and labor court. Party in the 1991 March began to implement the multi-party system, the national conference held in July the same year the formulated and adopted the "law of political party". Party of 83, are: (1) Mali Union Party (Le Rassemblement pour le Mali): the Department set up by the part of the original Africa justice Unity Party member in 2001 June. The domestic and overseas were built with headquarters. The party consists of headquarters (city level), every village has at least established a grassroots Committee, party organization in the national coverage of more than 90%. In 2002 January, held the first National Congress, the election of a national leading body of the Political Bureau of the party, a total of 53 members. (2) Africa justice Unity Party (Parti Africain pour la Solidarit é et la Justice): once for the ruling party. Formerly known as the Maryland Democratic Alliance was founded in May, 1991. In 2001 June, former party chairman Ibrahim Boubacar Keita quit the party, the party appears larger split, weakened. In 2003, the party split again. Former vice chairman of the party third party he and his followers established in Mali, Democratic Alliance (Union malienne pour la R é Publique et la D é mocratie). (3) the National Democratic Congress (Le initiative

奉行独立、和平、睦邻友好和不结盟的对外政策,强调外交为经济发展服务,努力寻求国际援助。马里是不结盟运动的创始国之一,主张维护不结盟运动,使之在国际舞台上发挥更加重要的作用。积极参加中、西非地区维和行动,谴责一些非洲国家动辄军事政变的做法。承认巴勒斯坦国并建立了外交关系,支持巴以和平协议。截至2003年底,马与133个国家建立了外交关系。 同中国的关系1964年1月16日周恩来抵达马里,在机场受到马里总统凯塔的欢迎1960年10月25日,中马建交。马里总统凯塔、特拉奥雷、科纳雷、杜尔,总理凯塔等均曾访华。周恩来总理、陈毅副总理兼外长、耿飚副总理、黄华副总理兼外长、田纪云副总理、钱其琛国务委员兼外长、李岚清副总理、江泽民主席、司马义·艾买提国务委员、全国政协陈锦华副主席、全国人大顾秀莲副委员长等先后访马。 2004年7月15~20日,马里总统杜尔对中国进行国事访问。国家主席胡锦涛与杜尔总统举行会谈,全国人大常委会委员长吴邦国、国务院总理温家宝分别予以会见。访问期间,双方签署了《中华人民共和国政府和马里共和国政府经济技术合作协定》、《中华人民共和国政府和马里共和国政府文化、科学与技术合作协定》、《中华人民共和国政府和马里共和国政府旅游合作协定》及《中华人民共和国澳门特别行政区与马里共和国互免签证的协定》。 2004年,中国同马里的贸易总额为1.6552亿美元,其中中方出口额为5877万美元,进口额为1.0675亿美元。 目前中国与马里的进出口货物主要是靠埃塞俄比亚航空公司承运,而自从埃塞航空公司签署北京泛源国际运输服务有限公司为核心代理后,中国出口马里货物与日聚增。 2006年,中国同马里的贸易总额为1.8923亿美元,其中中方出口额为7499万美元,进口额为1.1424亿美元。 同法国的关系法国是马原宗主国。1960年11月3日,两国关系正常化。双方保持传统的特殊关系。法是马第一大援助国和第二大贸易伙伴。两国间高层互访频繁。2003年10月,法总统希拉克访马。访问期间,法向马提供71.49亿非郎的援助,免除马今后4年约1160万欧元的到期债务。同月,法向马提供总额达700万欧元的援助。2003年,法国内政、国内治安和地方自治部长萨科奇、对外贸易部部长级代表洛斯、负责对外合作和法语国家事务部长级代表维尔特泽及国防和老战士部长玛丽先后访马。 同美国的关系两国于1960年9月29日建交。1996至2001年美向马提供的援助总额达2.5亿美元。2003年7月,杜尔总统赴塞内加尔与西非8国总统共同会晤访非的布什总统。8月,美向马提供总额达220亿非郎的援款。1998至2003年,美政府每年资助马开展军事培训活动,并进行联合军事演习。2003年7月,因马拒绝签署美公民免受国际刑事法院起诉的协议,美威胁停止向马提供军援。 同俄罗斯的关系1960年10月14日同前苏联建交,双方关系密切。1992年1月,马正式承认俄罗斯和其它独联体成员国。马欠俄债务2500亿非洲法郎,占其外债总额的18%。1998年,俄决定减免马债务的67%。2003年6月,俄罗斯杜马副主席访马。 同德国的关系德国是第一个承认马独立的国家。1960年10月12日两国建交,此后,两国关系发展顺利。2003年5月,马外长特拉奥雷访德,双方签署了2003至2005年德向马提供440亿非郎的援款协议。10月,德外长菲舍尔访马。12月,杜尔总统对德国进行正式访问。同月,两国签署德向马提供总额300亿非郎的援助协议。 同日本的关系两国于1960年10月4日建交。自1989年至1998年,日本向马提供赠款累计达4400万美元。2003年1月和6月,日先后向马提供20亿和32亿非郎援助,分别用于重建国家粮食安全储备和资助农业发展。12月,两国签署两项协议,援款总额达35亿非郎。 同邻国的关系马里地图马里与几内亚关系长期稳定,高层互访频繁。2002年9月,马将几科纳克里港开辟为第三个出海口。 马里与阿尔及利亚于1983年签署边界协定。1984年4月,两国签署边界会谈纪要。两国就维护边境安全定期举行磋商。阿是马最大的奖学金提供国。 马里与塞内加尔、科特迪瓦有着传统经济、贸易关系。达喀尔港和阿比让港是马主要出海口。 马里与毛里塔尼亚于1963年签署边界条约;1984年两国就确定边界走向问题达成协议;1986年4月,两国边界问题混委会在巴马科举行会议,商讨树立界碑问题。2002年4月,双方主管部长发表联合声明,宣布两国边界全部划定。2003年6月,马政府发表声明谴责毛发生的未遂军事政变。 马同布基纳法索有1100公里的共同边界,两国曾于1974年和1985年两次发生大规模武装冲突。1986年12月,两国政府接受海牙国际法庭的最终裁决,关系修复,并于同年互设使馆。2002年,两国有关负责人就边境问题数次会晤,以共同保证边境安全。

Mali, 1960 silver dollar economy is dominated by agriculture and animal husbandry, weak industrial base, is published by the United Nations one of the least developed countries of the world. In 1988, began implementing the "planned economy structural adjustment plan" and "the reform of the state enterprises". After 1992, the same year by year the world bank and the International Monetary Fund signed the agreement in the structural adjustment programme, within the period provided by the agreement mark get some assistance. In 1994, the horse to seize the opportunity Africa franc, expand the traditional products, cotton and livestock exports, then the economy had maintained a relatively high growth rate. Beginning in 1999, due to the international market of cotton, gold prices fell as well as rising oil prices and other factors, the economic slowdown. After President Toure came to power to carry out economic liberalization and privatization policies, efforts to improve the investment environment. MA in growing slowly. The main mineral resources and its proved reserves of 900 tons of gold, iron: 13.6 tons, bauxite 12 tons, 65000000 tons of diatomite, salt 53000000 tons, 11800000 tons of phosphate. Forest area of 1100000 hectares, the coverage rate is less than 1%, abundant water resources. Industry in 2002, industrial output value accounted for about 8% of gdp. The main industrial sectors are food, textile, tobacco, building materials, mechanical and pharmaceutical etc.. Agriculture and animal husbandry and fishery in 2002, agricultural output value accounted for about 19.7% of GDP, the animal husbandry occupies an important position in the national economy, the output value accounted for about 10% of gdp. The rural population accounts for 80% of the total population. The population engaged in agricultural production accounted for 40% of the population. In 1996, the country has a land area of 3500000 hectares, accounting for about 30% of the area of arable land. The main crops and yield are as follows (unit: million tons): 1999/2000 2000/2001 2001/2002 millet, sorghum 149.9 139.4 155.8 39.7 74.5 43.7 72.3 74.5 corn rice seed cotton 48.6 108 24.3 57.5 21.4 16.6 17.5 peanut Service industry service industry mainly by traffic, communication, commercial and administrative departments. The total output value of service industry accounts for about 42% of gdp. The main tourist city tourism are the capital Bamako, the ancient city of Timbuktu and the city of Mopti, the best tourist season is from November to January of the next year. Transportation, the Central Bank of West African States Building Department of landlocked countries, domestic transportation on the main highway. Import and export goods subject to neighboring port transport. Two international highway through Bamako to Conakry and Abidjan, road length of 1110 km and 1115 km respectively. The Ivory Coast after the outbreak of the crisis, the Lome Bamako highway transport of goods increased rapidly. Only one connection to Cooley C Lo, Bamako and Dakar international narrow gauge railway, Bamako to Dakar railway with a total length of 1250 km. The following 2003 transportation situation: Railways: total length of 728 km; to freight, running speed of 60 km / h. Highways: total length of 18700 km, including 3367 km of asphalt roads; various types of motor vehicles by about 120000 vehicles, motorcycles and small truck based on. Water: River route length of 12700 km; operation and management, shipping company responsible for inland river shipping, with all kinds of ships 27. Cargo: in 1990, countries participating in the 20% investment, establishment of Mali, airlines (MALITAS). A total of 5 aircraft, mainly engaged in domestic routes. At present, the company is facing bankruptcy, the government is actively planning to build the new airlines of mali. There are 5 city has an international airport, Ba Marco Jose Nur International Airport can accommodate all kinds of large passenger aircraft. In 2002 7186 flights, passengers more than 33 people, more than 2500 tons of cargo. Foreign trade to free trade policy, the government through the issuance of import and export of intent for the macro management of trade. France, Ivory Coast, Italy and Thailand are the main trade partner. The main export products are: gold, cotton and livestock; the main imported products are: machinery, building materials, chemicals, fuel and food etc.. People's life in 2002, per capita income of $240. Salaries vary greatly, so the ordinary workers, monthly wages 30000 Africa francs. There are 13 hospitals, 1 Department of Stomatology treatment centers, 48 provincial-level Baojian Railway Station, 264 county clinics, there are a number of maternity and child Baojian Railway Station. In 2001, average every 13400 people have 1 doctors. In 2001, the country of about 11000 people died of AIDS, 1.7% of adults infected. In 2002, every 1000 people have the telephone 5.2. In the United Nations Development Programme 2003 human development index ranking, Mali in 175 countries ranked 172nd.



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