加蓬今日气温查询让蒂尔港,利伯维尔,利伯维尔等城市今日气温查询

加蓬位于非洲中部西海岸,横跨赤道。东、南与刚果毗邻,北接喀麦隆和赤道几内亚,西濒浩瀚的大西洋。国土面积为267667平方公里,海岸线长800公里。北部属热带雨林气候,炎热、湿润,全年气温变化不大,年平均气温为26℃。加蓬水系发达,是一个河流众多、河网密布的国家。

加蓬赤道线上的纪念性标志。该标志绘有加蓬全国地图和一只鹦鹉,旁边的文字是"纪念您在古苏羽翼护卫下的赤道之行"。"古苏"当地土语意为鹦鹉,一些部落视其为神鸟。 环境气候 面积267667平方公里。位于非洲中西部,赤道横贯其中加蓬部,西濒大西洋。东、南与刚果(布)为邻,北与喀麦隆、赤道几内亚接壤。海岸线长800公里。沿海为平原,南段多沙丘、泻湖和沼泽,北段间有山崖临海。内地为高原,海拔500-800米。伊本吉山高1575米,是全国最高点。奥果韦河自东向西横贯全境。属典型的赤道雨林气候,全年高温多雨,年平均气温26℃。加蓬拥有丰富的森林资源,森林面积占全国土地面积的85%,被誉为非洲的“绿金之国”。 行政区划 全国划分为9个省(河口省、滨海奥果韦省、尼扬加省、中奥果韦省、上奥果韦省、奥果韦-洛洛省、奥果韦-伊温多省、恩古涅省、沃勒-恩特姆省),下辖44个州、8个县、12个市。州以下为村庄。 自然资源 自然资源丰富,森林面积2040万公顷,占国土面积76%,可采伐的原木约为3亿立方米,仅次于扎伊尔,居非洲第二位,素有“森林之国”之称。主要树种有奥库梅和奥齐戈,其中奥库梅的蓄积量为1亿立方米,产量居世界第一位。已探明可开采的石油储量约2亿吨。锰矿储量为2亿吨,占世界储量的25%,仅次于南非、前苏联,居世界第三位。金属铀储量为3.5万吨,仅次于尼日尔,居非洲第二位。铁矿储量8~10亿吨,品位62%~65%。铌矿储量4000万吨,仅次于巴西的阿拉萨矿,居世界第二位。 其他矿藏有磷酸盐、黄金、重晶石、镍、铬、锌等。沿海专属经济区宽度为200海里,渔业资源丰富。 人口 150多万(2005年)。加蓬是个多民族的国家,属班图种族的有40多个部族,主要有芳族(占全国人口31%)、巴普努族(占22%)等,俾格米种族3000多人。官方语言为法语。民族语言有芳语、米耶内语和巴太凯语。居民信奉天主教的占50%,信奉基督教新教的占20%,信奉伊斯兰教的占10%,其余信奉原始宗教。 首都介绍 利伯维尔 利伯维尔(Libreville),人口40多万(1999年)。 利伯维尔,加蓬共和国的首都,位于非洲几内亚湾东岸、赤道以北40多公里处,是一座美丽的海滨旅游城市。市内街道两旁椰树茂密,别墅雅致,风景如画。在丘陵起伏、道路弯弯曲曲的城区内,有许多富有浓厚阿拉伯民族色彩和非洲古貌的建筑。它是加蓬的政治、经济和文化中心,也是重要海港。人口40余万(1999年),年平均气温26℃“利伯维尔”之意是自由城。早在15世纪末,西方殖民者相继到这一带沿海,从事罪恶的奴隶贸易。1839年,法国船长布埃发现这里是建立商站的好地方,便用低廉的代价骗取了加蓬河口两岸大片土地的主权。为了掠夺加蓬丰富的自然资源,1846年,一座殖民者的商业城镇在加蓬河口北岸建立起来了。它就是利伯维尔的前 身。1849年,法国人在附近截获了一艘偷贩“黑奴”的巴西船,把船上的黑人安置在这里,于是,布埃便给这个城镇起了个时髦的名字——利伯维尔(自由)。 利伯维尔坐落在大西洋加蓬湾的北岸;西面南北延伸的海滨,东面起伏变幻的丘陵,南面沟通内陆的加蓬河,加上宜人的热带海洋性气候,为城市建设和旅游业的发展提供了有利的自然条件。市区沿海滨延伸,向背后的丘陵扩大,恰似放大的同心半圆。风景如画的椰林海滨,有开阔的沙滩、清澈的浴场;幽静的滨海大道,排列着雅致的别墅、高大的旅馆;繁华的独立大道,是首都行政和商业中心,那里大楼高耸,建筑成群,商店林立,还有热闹非凡的市场;滨海区背后,作为国宾馆的“三月二十日宫”、国际会议大厦和周围的四十多幢宾馆,耸立在起伏的山岗之上。城市中热带风情同高大现代化建筑的有机结合,构成一幅欣欣向荣的画卷。 利伯维尔的工业包括锯木、胶和板、纺织印染、酿酒、制糖、面粉、造船、水泥等多种工业部门。木材加工具有历史传统,郊区的农巴洛韦锯木厂是加蓬最大的锯木厂。作为文化教育中心,这里是加蓬国立大学的所在地,同时有公立中学、师范学院、技术学校、林立学校、商业学院等各类学校,以及热带农牧业、地质矿产和林业的研究机构。此外它的民族博物馆、综合性的体育场闻名全国。

Gabon national two major races, Pygmies and bantus. Pygmy is the earliest inhabitants of gabon. There are about their records in the early Egyptian pharaohs, mentioned in ancient Greece and the horse epic. The man is 1.4-1.5 meters, the woman's height 1.0-1.3 meters, short legs and thick, broad chest, flat nose, thin lips, big head, eyes one's eyes brimming with radiating vigour, the whole body into bronze. They live in the depths of the upper ogowe tropical rainforest. The total number of about 3000 people. Due to long-term influence of Bantu culture, pygmy lost native languages, they fuck Marca, COTA, bang Geely Bantu, keep the animist beliefs, the prevalence of witchcraft, divination, monogamous, mainly engaged in hunting and gathering. Gabon The Bantu dark, curly hair, thick lips, wide nose. Although they are from the field to come, but already became the main residents in gabon. The nation all over every corner of the country, divided into 40 tribes. Mainly include: An aromatic, accounting for 31% of the population. Mainly distributed in the Ogooue river north area. From the north to diffusion, said Fang. Most catholic, keeping the animist beliefs. The chiefs of the clan. Mainly engaged in farming, planting corn, cassava, cocoa and Coffee, are engaged in fishing. Tom Pang Kuiren, accounting for about 15% of the population, live in coastal plain. The Middle Ages was the Pakistani Congo Kingdom, have played an important role in the history of the development of the country. Speak, Pang Kui language. Many people speak fang. Most, Pang Kuiren Catholic, and according to maternal continued spectrum and inherit property, from Uncle living. Mainly engaged in agriculture, fishery and things, there are a lot of people in the city business. Mbete people, accounting for 14% of the population. The main distribution between the upper ogowe River and its tributaries Okano and leven more river. Beni Abbes dialect speaking, Catholic, but some of them remain animistic belief. According to matrilineal social organization. Mainly engaged in the development of agriculture, forest, also engaged in hunting and fishing. Punu people, accounting for 22% of the population. Mainly distributed in the middle of the Ogooue River south of the region. Speak dialects of Beni abbes. Many Catholic, some people keep animist beliefs. According to matrilineal social organization. Mainly engaged in farming, and hunting and fishing. In addition, there are some small tribes, such as the state of Geely, Lakota, check the Anji people, Marca etc.. What they have in common is: maintain traditional beliefs; social life are still left traces of the matriarchal society; most people engaged in farming, fishing and hunting.

欧洲殖民主义者入侵前,奥果韦河以南地区属于当时首都设在刚果境内的罗安哥王国,奥果韦河以北地区属于当时首都设在上几内亚地区的贝宁王国。但上述两个王国对加蓬地区的统治都比较松弛,加蓬各地实际上处于以部落为单位的分散状态。 公元12世纪,班图人从非洲东部迁徙至加蓬,在奥果韦河两岸建立了一些部落王国。15世纪,葡萄牙人率先来到加蓬海岸,从事奴隶贩卖活动。18世纪,法国逐步侵入。法国殖民主义者以武力为后盾,诱骗当地酋长与其签订“保护”条约,至1891年,占领加蓬全境。1910年,加蓬成为法国在赤道非洲的四块领地之一。翌年,为换取德国承认摩洛哥受法国“保护”,法国将赤道非洲转让给德国。第一次世界大战以后,加蓬重新落入法国手中。第二次世界大战以后,加蓬民族独立运动兴起。1957年法国被迫承认加蓬为“半自治共和国”。1958年11月,成为“法兰西共同体”内的“自治共和国”。1960年8月17日宣布独立,但仍留在“法兰西共同体”内。1961年,举行总统和国民议会选举,加蓬民主同盟总书记莱昂·姆巴(Leon Mba)当选为总统,组成以“加蓬民主同盟”为主的政府。1964年2月17~18日,陆军发动政变,宣布推翻姆巴政府,另组以“加蓬民主和社会联盟”总书记奥巴姆为首的政府。19日,法国出兵干涉,政变失败,姆巴重新掌权。1967年11月,姆巴病故。12月2日,副总统邦戈继任总统。1973年2月、1979年12月和1986年11月,邦戈连选连任总统。1993年12月在首次多党制总统选举中,邦戈再次当选为总统。

Constitution The first constitution was promulgated in February 19, 1959, 1960. The second constitution promulgated in February 17, 1961, 1967, 1981, 1983 and 1987 four major changes. The current constitution of third constitution, promulgated in March 26, 1991. 1994, 1995 and 1997 was amended for three times. Provisions of Gabon as a separation of the three powers, political parties according to the principles of multi-party democracy election. In 1997 April through a constitutional amendment. Provisions of the presidential term from 5 years to 7 years; cancel candidate maximum age limit; in the president's absence, the Senate President or first vice president shall act for the president, and in 30 ~ 40 days of the presidential election, acting president of the terms of the people can not participate in the presidential campaign; the new constitution also provides for the establishment of the vice presidency appointment and removal by the president, vice president, the president, the president designated task completed, when the constitutional court has announced the presidential election when a vacancy or the president, vice president and then stop; member of the constitutional court term from 5 years to 7 years, the president is elected by the president appointed by the president; the national news Council, the president of the Senate and the national assembly of the appointment of 3 members, of which 2 must be members of the press, press cancel stipulated by the election of 3 members, the president elected by the presidential appointment. Parliament In March 18, 1994, the National Assembly passed a constitutional amendment, decided to abolish the unicameral parliament, with the Senate, composed by the national assembly and senate. The legislative power is exercised by the national assembly and Senate joint. Its main function is to make laws, supervising the work of the government for approval to declare war, and more than 21 days of martial law. Held the two meeting every year. Members of both houses are elected by direct universal suffrage and indirect election, term of office is 5 years and 6 years respectively. In 1997 April, the revised constitution stipulates the speaker of the national assembly and Senate tenure respectively by 30 and 36 months until the 60 and 72 months, provisions of the abolition of mid-term elections. The ninth session of the national parliament in elections in January 27, 1997, a total of 120 members, of which the Gabonese Democratic Party 85 seats, speaker Guy Nzouba Ndama (Guy Nzouba Ndama). A total of 91 members of the Senate, Democrats accounted for 51 seats, speaker George Rawiri (Georges Rawiri). The government The government formed in January 25, 1999 February 10th, the reorganization technology. Including Vice Prime Minister, each 1, 8 ministers, 17 ministers, 7 ministers and 8 secretaries of state level representatives. The judiciary A court of first instance, the court of appeal, court, court, court of justice, in particular the administrative court, the court of auditors and the constitutional court. The courts exercise judicial power independently according to law. The courts at all levels are equipped with the prosecutor, procuratorial power. The highest judicial committee as the highest judicial administrative organ of state, the president of the republic president, decided to judicial appointments, sending, promotion and punishment. Judicial Court of First Hospital of Changan Towan Nguema Esono (Antoine Nguema Essono), judicial court attorney general Pierrette Juasa (Pierette Djouassa, female), the audit court president Gilbert Ngoulakia (Albert Ngoulakia), the auditing court attorney general Alfons Nyanga (Alphonse Ndjiandja), President of the constitutional court, Marie - she and Tom Braun chuao (Marie-Madeleine Mborantsuo, female). Party The existing 28 legal political parties, including 12 in the national parliament. The main political parties: 1, the Democratic Party (Parti Democratique, Du Gabon, abbreviation P.D.G) the ruling party in 1968, established in March, has about 700000 members. Emphasis on maintaining national stability and unity, advocated the strengthening of democratic construction. President Bongo as the party founder. General secretary Sonplis Gad Menzela (Simplice Guedet-Manzela). 2, the woodcutter National Alliance (Rassemblement National Des Bucherons) the first opposition party, a faction of the national revival movement from 1981 in January the establishment of the splinter, formerly known as the national revival movement "logging", the name is changed to December 20, 1990. Advocate economy and free competition, opposition to state intervention, emphasizing the development of the rural economy. President Paul Mba Abessole (Paul Mba Abessole). In 1998 the split, Abbe solo and first secretary Kombila accused each other of violating discipline, the party expelled from the party. 3, the Gabonese Progress Party (Parti Gabonais Du Progres) opposition party, founded in March 1990, many members are university professors, lawyers and journalists. Advocates of "reform", improve the national political life, the implementation of fair distribution, maintaining national stability, the development of the national economy. President Pierre Agoncio Okawe (Pierre Agondjo-Okawe). In addition, in the parliament party and League: liberal reformers, Socialist Alliance, Africa revival forum, for democracy and justice, democracy and progress Union Congress, democratic republican alliance, the national revival movement "primitives", the Social Democratic Party and the people's union. National leaders Haji Omar Bongo President Haji Omar Bongo (El Hadj

反映加蓬部族妇女满载而归的油画。 被列为法语非洲唯一“中等收入”国家。独立后经济一度发展迅速。以石油为主的采掘业发展较快,加工业和农业基础薄弱。石油、锰、铀和木材曾为经济四大支柱。加蓬有丰富的矿产资源。它是黑非洲第三大石油生产国,石油出口收入占国内生产总值的50%以上。已探明可开采的石油储量约4亿吨。锰矿蕴藏量2亿吨,占世界储量25%,居第4位,为世界第3大生产和出口国,产量近几年稳定在200万吨左右,素有“黑金之国”的美誉。铀矿品位较高,储量约3.6万吨,居非洲第二位。铌矿储量约40万吨,占世界总储量5%。铁矿储量8至10亿吨,品位在60%以上。铌矿的储量约40万吨,占世界总储量的5%。加蓬还是世界上最大的二氧化锰生产国,其产量为世界产量的50%。其它矿藏还有磷酸盐、黄金、重晶石、镍、铬、锌等。加蓬素有森林之国的美称,林木繁茂,种类诸多。森林面积2200万公顷,占全国国土面积的85%,原木储量约4亿立方米,居非洲第三位,主要树种有奥库梅木和奥齐戈木,其中奥库梅木的蓄积量为1.3亿立方米,年产250万立方米,居世界第一位。采矿业是加蓬主要经济部门。六十年代初开始开发石油,95%的石油供出口,出口收入约占国内生产总值的41%、出口总额的80%、国家财政收入的62%。工业主要有石油冶炼、木材加工和食品加工等。农牧业发展缓慢,粮、肉、菜、蛋均不能自给,粮食60%需要进口。耕地面积不到全国土地面积的2%,农村人口占全国人口的27%。主要农产品有木薯、芭蕉、玉米、山药、芋头、可可、咖啡、蔬菜、橡胶、棕榈油等。主要出口石油、木材、锰和铀;主要进口食品、轻工产品、机械设备等。主要贸易对象是法国等西方国家。  部族面具>> 独具特色的加蓬 加蓬是中等收入的发展中国家。独立后经济一度发展迅速。特别是发展较快,加工工业和农业基础薄弱。石油、锰、铀和木材为加蓬经济四大支柱。 工矿业 据非洲发展银行1999年发展报告,加蓬1997年工矿业生产总值为92亿美元,占国内生产总值的60%。采矿业是主要经济部门,其产值占国内生产总值的55.4%。20世纪60年代初开始开发石油,1997年共有陆上和海上油田33个,其中18个正在开采。95%的石油供出口,出口收入约占国内生产总值的45%,出口总额的80%,国家财政收入的60%。1996年6月7日,加退出石油输出国组织,其成员国资格于1996年底终止。加蓬又是世界上最大的二氧化锰生产国,其产量为世界产量的1/2;金属锰产量占世界产量的1/3。 加蓬的工业在加蓬的国民经济中不占重要位置。主要有石油冶炼、木材加工和食品加工等。现有一个炼油厂,年生产能力80万吨。胶合板厂年生产能力8.5万立方米,为世界第二大胶合板厂。1995年木材产值占国内生产总值的3.3%,1995年生产原木212.7万立方米。1995年发电9.6亿度。此外,还有制烟业和制酒业等。水泥产量在20万吨左右。 加蓬 农林牧渔业 加蓬的农、林、牧、渔业1997年的总产值为3.85亿美元,占国民生产总值的7.5%。 林业是加蓬的主要经济部门。目前年采伐量为100万至150万立方米。其中奥库梅木产量居世界之首,林业是加财政收入的重要来源之一,从业人员占加劳动人口的15%。加从1981年开始种植橡胶,现胶林面积已达9000公顷,1991年首次出口1万吨天然橡胶。计划到2000年将胶林面积增加到2.8万公顷,年产3.1万吨橡胶。 农业不够发达,粮食、蔬菜和肉类均不能自给。粮食60%需要进口。耕地面积不到全国土地面积的2%,农村人口占全国人口的52%。主要农产品有木薯、芭蕉、玉米、山药、芋头、可可、咖啡、蔬菜、橡胶、棕榈油等。 畜牧业不发达。80%的牛肉从法国进口。家禽年产300万吨,只能满足需求量的70%。1997年牲畜存栏数较高,达3.6万头。1998年有所下降。全国有3个养牛场,2家肉鸡场。1991年海上捕捞量为2万吨。 旅游业 政府重视开发旅游资源。1993年有旅馆74家,客房3000多间,床位5800个,餐馆、夜总会200家。 交通运输 西起利伯维尔、东至弗朗斯维尔的横贯加蓬大铁路是加惟一一条铁路,全长648公里,1986年底建成通车。1991年客货运输收入分别为18.1亿和92.91亿非郎。 1992年,公路总长8000公里,其中沥青路779公里。内河航道1800公里,但由于奥果韦河上、中游多急流瀑布,仅恩乔莱至让蒂尔港350公里有定期班轮。海运承担进出口货物运输的98%。利伯维尔—奥文多港和让蒂尔港为主要港口。加75%的进口货物在奥文多港卸船。让蒂尔港承担加68%的原油出口。 航空业比较发达,利伯维尔、弗朗斯维尔和让蒂尔港建有国际机场。加蓬航空公司成立于1976年,辟有通往欧洲和非洲中西部的十余条航线。1991年客运量为43.6万人次,货运量9946吨。非洲航空公司、法国、瑞士、比利时、喀麦隆、刚果(金)、尼日利亚、赤几、圣普、摩洛哥等国航空公司与加有定期航班。 财政金融 加蓬是中部非洲货币联盟成员,据非洲发展银行的统计数字,1997年的财政收入为16亿美元,支出为13亿美元,有3亿美元的赢余。1997年外债总额为41.50亿美元,占国内生产总值的80.5%。1980~1990年的外债还本付息年均增长率为23.9%,1991~1997年为6.6%。1998年外汇储备为1.077亿美元。 对外贸易 执行自由贸易政策,与140多个国家和地区建立贸易关系。主要出口石油、木材、锰和铀;主要进口食品、轻工产品、机械设备等。1996年出口总值为29.16亿美元,进口为18.48亿美元,经常项目余额为1.00亿美元。 人民生活 实行高福利政策,每周工作时间为40小时,本国人每月各种补贴2万非洲法郎,最低保证工资4.4万非洲法郎,实行全民公费医疗制度。1992年就业人口81700人,比1989年减少3万人。1993年有28所医院,632个医疗中心和诊所,共有病床5329张,医生300多人。 据非洲发展银行的统计数字,加蓬1997年的出生率为36.6‰,5岁以下儿童的死亡率1996年为82‰。预期寿命1996年为男53岁、女57岁。生育率为1997年每一妇女生5.2胎。据世界银行1998/99年发展报告,获得安全饮用水的人口1995年占总人口的67%。   

Gabon The combined forces of former French colonial army. Independence, no more than 300 people. Signed in 1960 and the French defense agreement; Gabon officers from France by the French supply weapons training. From the beginning of 1961, the number of troops gradually increase. After 1972, military sources tend to diversification. As the army continues to expand the scale, set up the land, sea, empty three independent services, and the establishment of land, sea, empty three staff in 1983; in 1986 the establishment of the armed forces chief of general staff of the armed forces, governance. Headquarters set up defense committee chairman, President, responsible for the defence policy. The Secretary of defense, security and immigration is responsible for the implementation of defense policy, chief of staff of the armed forces, commander of the gendarmerie and police commander. Land, sea and air forces, the staff. The presidential guard by the president personally command. The country is divided into 7 districts, each military area command, governs the area forces. Troops and armed forces of the total number of about 12000 people, consisting of three parts: 1, the armed forces including the land, sea, and air forces, the armed forces of light flight and fire camp, a total of about 6000 people, including 150 women. The army's 1900 person, belong to the 1 command and support battalion, 1 parachute battalion, 4 infantry, 1 engineer company, 1 service company. The Navy 500, in Libreville and Port Gentil to deploy two bases. The air force 600 people, has a base in Libreville and Frans Weil Mugai. 2, the presidential guard 1400 people. 3, security forces, including the gendarmerie and police, 2400 people and 2500 people respectively. Weapon 80% weapons and equipment from France, the rest from the British, American, Italy, Germany and Brazil. The army is equipped with light over 40 tanks, armored personnel carriers, 35 vehicles, 4 multiple rocket launcher howitzer door, 8 door, 40 door of mortar, recoilless gun 6 door, 21 door antiaircraft gun. The navy has four tubes of ship to ship missile launching submarine 1 ships, landing ship 1 boats, small landing craft 3 ships, 1 ships offshore patrol boat, river patrol boat 4 ship etc.. Air force mirage 9 fighters, maritime patrol aircraft 1, large and medium-sized transport aircraft 4 aircraft, 1 medium-sized passenger aircraft, small aircraft 4, 6 trainer aircraft, 14 helicopters. Voluntary enlistment military conscription. Military spending in 1990 was $167000000, accounting for 5.2% of gross national product.



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