毛里求斯今日气温查询路易港,路易港等城市今日气温查询

毛里裘斯共和国(英语:Republic of Mauritius),非洲东部一岛国,位于印度洋西南方。西距马达加斯加约800公里,与非洲大陆相距2,200公里。整个国土由几个火山岛组成,面积2,040平方公里,人口约126万(2007年估计数字)。1968年3月12日脱离英国殖民独立。岛上有不少客家人移民,故亦通用客家话。居民51%信奉印度教,31.3%信奉基督教,16.6%信奉伊斯兰教。毛里裘斯曾是世上唯一住有渡渡鸟的地方,但该鸟已于17世纪末绝种。

毛里求斯是非洲的一个岛国,位于印度洋西南部。它西距马达加斯加约800公里,距肯尼亚的蒙巴萨港1800公里,南距留尼汪160公里,东离澳大利亚4827公里。海岸线长217公里。毛里求斯全国分为4个大区和5个直辖市,区下设126个村。总面积为2040平方公里,其中属岛面积有175平方公里 。毛里求斯环境气候毛里求斯除本岛外,还包括了圣布兰登群岛、罗德里格斯岛及阿加莱加群岛。毛里裘斯与附近的留尼汪岛(距毛里裘斯西南200公里)及罗德里格斯岛等共同组成马斯克林群岛 (Mascarene Islands)。马斯克林群岛的形成是由于非洲板块在留尼汪热点上滑动所引起的一连串海底火山爆发,但这地区的火山活动已不再活跃。毛里裘斯本岛形成于群岛的中央台地,最高点位于岛上西南部,海拔828米(2,717呎)。现在在台地四周的山丘仍能看到昔日火山口的遗迹。毛里求斯的首都路易港位于本岛西北端,亦为该国的最大城市。其他重要城镇包括居尔皮普(Curepipe)、瓦科阿(Vacoas)、菲尼克斯(Phoenix)、卡特勒博尔纳(Quatre Bornes)、罗斯希尔(Rose Hill)及博巴森(Beau Bassin)等。毛里求斯亦以自然景观闻名。就连美国著名作家马克·吐温也在其个人游记作品《赤道漫游记》(Following the Equator)中提到:“有人说上帝创造天堂之前先创造毛里裘斯,而那个天堂其实是依照毛里裘斯创造出来的。”毛里求斯由毛里求斯岛和其他小群岛组成。面积2040平方公里。毛里求斯岛是火山岛,四周被珊瑚礁环绕,岛上的地貌千姿百态。沿海是狭窄平原,中部是高原山地,有多座山脉和孤立的山峰,景色颇为壮观。属于亚热带海洋性气候的毛里求斯,全年分雨旱两个季节,平均温度25℃。高原湖泊为岛民提供了淡水资源。毛里求斯属亚热带海洋性气候。全年分夏、冬两季,11月至次年4月为夏季,沿海气温27℃,中部高原22℃,海水温度约27℃;5月至10月为冬季、凉季,沿海平均气温24℃,中部高原19℃,海水温度约22℃。人口毛里求斯毛里裘斯社会包含了很多不同的种族,而占大多数的是印度次大陆移民的后裔。除此之外,亦有不少来自非洲大陆、马达加斯加、法国、英国、中国及其他地方。全国2,040平方公里的面积住了约126万人,令其人口密度达每平方公里616人,世界排名11。毛里裘斯的官方语言是英语,所有政府文件都以英文书写。在学校里,英语和法语都是教学语言。但法语在广播及文字传媒,以至在商业及企业关系上都占有重要地位。毛里裘斯最多人说的语言是毛里裘斯克里奥耳语(Mauritian Creole),这语言受法语影响颇深,却在某些地方与法语有明显分别;也包含有英语、旁遮普语等成份。克里奥耳语被视为毛里裘斯的国家母语。

Mauritius Mauritius was the island. Ad tenth Century, Dravidian (Tamil) and Austronesian people seaman first record the island exists. By 1505, the Portuguese Mask Lin (Pedro Mascarenhas) to reach the island, named "the island", but not on the Island reclamation or colonial. In 1598 the Dutch to this, taking Holland Maurice of Nassau (Maurice of Nassau) is named as Mauritius. In 1638, the Dutch built on the island of permanent settlements, but in a few decades later because of bad weather and other factors and give up the island. When the occupation of neighbouring island of reunion in France was occupied in 1715 Mauritius, and renamed as "the island" (French: Le de France, English: Isle of France). In France, governance and colonial governor Francois Mae de Labrdone (Fran ç OIS Mah é de Labourdonnais) to vigorously promote, Mauritius began the development of cane sugar industry, the economy to take off. At the time France and Britain often have a military conflict, Jools French rule Mauri shield attack British merchant pirates, the pirates often seize the precious cargo to and from the UK and India merchant and ship. When the war broke out, Napoleon (1803-1815) won the British to Mauritius to eliminate the threat of piracy. The French navy in Dagang campaign (Battle of Grand Port) in defeating the British navy, this is Napoleon's only victory against the British navy. Even so, the French navy in the three months after the British navy defeated. Defeated the French in December 3, 1810 and formally surrendered to the British forces. As one of the terms of surrender, the British allowed on the island of the French remain in the possession of land and property, continue to use the French and French law dealing with criminal and civil cases and other rights. Mauritius became a British colony in 1814, since then the British from Chinese, Southeast Asia, Africa and India to introduce a large number of cheap labor, prisoners and free people to engage in cultivation, the Mauritius became the center of sale of cheap labor. Today, the Mauritius has more than 30000 Qing immigrants, they are native of Guangdong Meixian, still used to call the capital Port Louis as "wave tired" (Port Louis Cantonese transliteration). In 1961 July, Britain was forced to agree to the Mauritius implementation of internal self-government. Mauritius declared its independence in March 12, 1968. In 1992 changed to the Republic, in March 1st the same year was renamed the Republic of Mauritius.

毛里求斯议会毛里裘斯是一个议会民主制国家,政府架构与英国国会相似。国家元首是总统,任期为五年,总统由一院制议会──毛里裘斯国民议会(National Assembly of Mauritius)选出。国民议会共有70名成员,其中62名成员由21个选区以全民投票方式选出。毛里裘斯本岛共分为20个选区,每个选区各选出3名议会成员;而罗德里格斯岛则自成一个选区,选出2名议会成员。全民投票完成后,选举监察委员会会酌情由落选的参选者当中,提名四至八名获票最多的各个少数族裔代表进入议会,以确保少数族群的声音在议会中得到平等的对待。这就是所谓的“最佳落败者”(best loser)选举系统。政府由首相和部长理事会领导,任期为五年。在国民议会内赢得多数议席的政党或政党联盟将组织政府,并通常由其领袖出任首相。首相会由全体国民议会成员中选出除总检察官外所有内阁成员。至于国民议会内的第二大党或政党联盟会组成官方反对党(Official Opposition),其领袖通常会被毛里裘斯总统提名为反对党领袖。在国际事务方面,毛里裘斯是印度洋委员会(Indian Ocean Commission)、南部非洲发展共同体(Southern African Development Community)、英联邦及全球法语区(La Francophonie)成员国。2006年,毛里裘斯成为葡萄牙语国家共同体(Community of Portuguese Language Countries)的观察员国,以期与其他成员国发展更紧密合作关系。对外关系毛里求斯对外关系奉行中立、不结盟、全方位开放的外交政策。主张同所有不同政治、社会制度的国家发展友好关系,尤为注重发展与南部非洲国家、其人口祖籍国和印度洋沿岸国家的关系。坚持“外交为经济服务”的方针,努力寻求西方的援助与投资。积极参与地区合作和南南合作。截止2003年底,同80多个国家建立了外交关系。毛是不结盟运动、非洲联盟成员国,科托努协定签字国,也是东南非共同市场、南部非洲发展共同体、印度洋委员会、环印度洋地区合作联盟等地区合作组织的成员。毛为1999~2001年联合国人权委员会成员国,2001~2002年联合国非常任理事国。对当前重大国际问题的看法:认为联合国现行机构已不能适应新的国际形势,改革势在必行。主张扩大安理会常任理事国的席位,使其更具代表性。认为裁军是维护世界和平的根本途径,有效解决核问题的最佳方式是核大国制订销毁核武器时间表,国际社会不再发展核武器。主张印度洋地区为和平区,反对大国在印度洋的军事存在,要求撤走外国军队,拆除外国军事基地。在人权问题上与西方观点相近,但不赞成将人权问题政治化,认为西方国家也存在人权问题。谴责恐怖主义暴行,表示毫无保留地加入反恐联盟,坚决支持美打击恐怖主义行动。认为美利用查戈斯群岛的主岛迪戈加西亚岛军事基地打击恐怖主义分子是必要的。与中国关系:1972年4月15日,毛里求斯与中国建立外交关系。2003年,中毛关系继续稳步发展。1月,唐家璇外长访毛,并与毛方签署了中毛经济技术合作协定。2月,中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会副主席、中国国际交流协会副主席万国权访毛。9月,毛国民议会议长拉姆纳访华。同月,中国国务院侨办副主任刘泽彭、中国承包商会副会长刁春和访毛。11月,中国全国人大常委会副委员长李铁映对毛进行正式友好访问。12月,毛外长加扬出席在埃塞俄比亚首都亚的斯亚贝巴举行的中非合作论坛第二届部长级会议。会议期间,中国政府宣布毛为中国公民自费出国旅游目的地国。2003年两国贸易额11055万美元,同比增长16.8%,其中我出口10742万美元,进口313万美元。2004年2月3日,中国驻毛大使许孟水向毛总统贾格纳特递交国书。中国驻毛里求斯大使:许孟水。馆址:Embassy of the People's Republic of China, Royal road, Belle Rosehill。电话:00230 - 4549111,4549015;4549113(商务处);4645556(领事部);865635(经参处)。电报挂号:Chinemba Port Louis。传真:4646012。电传:CHINCOM IW。毛里求斯驻华大使:林德超。馆址:北京东直门外大街23号,外交办公大楼202号。电话:65325695,65325696,65325698。传真:65325706,65327102。同印度的关系:同印度有着特殊关系。印度是毛主要人口来源国,其传统文化、宗教、甚至种姓制度均对毛有很深影响。印是毛重要援助国,两国间设有混合委员会,在信息技术、海洋等领域签有合作协定。印是毛第三大商品供应国。2003年,毛总理贾格纳特对印进行国事访问,11月,毛新总理贝朗热将印度作为首次出访国。毛工业和国际贸易、文化、培训、就业等多位部长先后访印。印度海军总司令、外长先后访毛。2004年1月,第九届毛印混委会在新德里举行,毛外长库塔里和印外长辛哈分别率团与会。双方商定尽快启动两国“全面经济合作和伙伴关系协定”谈判。毛重申继续支持印成为联合国安理会常任理事国。同月,毛副总理兼财政和经济发展部长普拉文访印,出席在新德里举行的第二届世界印裔大会。3月,印青体部长维尔马访毛。同法国的关系:毛、法之间存在着传统的关系,法国人后裔掌握了毛大多数制糖厂以及许多工商业大公司。法是毛重要的援助国,援助主要集中于教育、卫生、水利及环保等方面,每年援助额约3000~3500万法郎。法系毛第一大进口国和第二大出口国。法国游客是毛旅游收入的重要来源,占到毛游客总数的45%左右。近年来,法视毛为“民主与发展的典范”,对毛影响进一步扩大。毛、法在特罗姆兰岛的主权问题上有争议。2003年2月,毛总理贾格纳特出席在巴黎召开的第22届法非首脑会议。2004年2月,毛总理贝朗热访法。同英国的关系:毛是英联邦成员国,同英保持着传统关系,在语言文化,立法、行政和司法体系,教育制度等方面均承袭英国体系,毛武装力量也接受英国培训。英曾是毛最大援助国,近年来由于财政困难,英对毛援助基本冻结,但双方在教育、农业、环境和职业培训等方面仍保持合作。英是进口毛食糖最多的国家,在毛出口贸易中占首位。毛、英在查戈斯群岛主权问题上有争议。同美国的关系:近年,毛与美国关系密切。2003年1月,毛成功举行了第二届美非经贸合作论坛。6月,毛美签署了“不向国际刑事法庭引渡美国公民”的协议。同月,贾格纳特总理访美。12月,毛工业与国际贸易部长库塔里在华盛顿的第三届美非经贸合作论坛。毛对美贸易呈顺差,美在毛出口贸易中占第三位。美在毛存在主权争议的查戈斯群岛主岛的迪戈加西亚岛上驻军问题是两国关系中的敏感问题。同南非的关系:1993年12月,毛同南非建交。毛与南关系密切,在南约有2万侨民,南是毛第一大进口国,两国于1994年签署了新的“避免双重征税”协定。2004年1月,南非前总统曼德拉对毛进行私人访问。3月10日,毛外交与国际贸易部长卡塔里率团参加在南非召开的第一届撒哈拉以南非洲国家纺织大会。同邻国的关系:1982年倡议成立地区组织印度洋委员会,1997年倡议成立环印度洋地区合作联盟。毛同马达加斯加于1968年8月27日建交。2002年12月,马总统拉瓦卢马纳纳访毛。2003年5月,马参议院议长和国民议会议长联合率团访毛。6月,毛总统奥夫曼对马进行正式访问。8月,毛旅游部长率旅游行业企业家代表团访马。11月,马副总理兼经济和金融部长拉曼丁比亚里松访毛。2004年4月,毛总理贝朗热访马,双方签署了双边合作总体框架协定、促进和互相保护投资协定以及旅游技术合作协定三个文件,并决定成立毛马混委会监督上述协定实施情况。毛同科摩罗于1985年2月25日建交。2003年底,毛与南非、马达加斯加一道促成科摩罗各方达成和平协定。2004年1月,科总统阿扎利对毛进行私人访问。

Mauritius since independence in 1968, Mauritius from low income of agricultural economic development into industry, financial industry and tourism also flourishing in income. Most of the time period of the annual economic growth between five percent and 6, this can be from the people's life expectancy, the infant mortality rate reduced, domestic infrastructure greatly improved and verified. Mauri estimation Jools 2005 purchasing power parity (purchasing power parity, referred to as "PPP") for $10155. The per capita GDP in Africa ranked seventh, after the reunion ($19233), the [14] (PPP $13887), Gabon (PPP $12742), Botswana (PPP $12057), Equatorial Guinea (PPP $11999) and Libya (PPP $10727). The national economy is mainly dependent on the cultivation of sugar cane, tourism and service industry, textile. Other industry also has the trend of rapid growth. Africa countries, only in Mauritius, Libya and Seychelles human development index was rated "high" level. The island is about nine into arable land is full of sugar cane, 1/4 of the country's foreign exchange earnings from exports are sugar cane. But in 1999 a severe drought greatly against the local sugar cane industry, government will be economic development strategy to attract foreign investment. The existing more than 9000 mainly in India and South Africa market Off Shore Company established in Mauritius, they only to the local banking investments of $1000000000. Former sovereign state of France is not only the Mauritius's largest trading partner, technical support also provides multiple category into the country.

毛里求斯无正规作战部队。武装力量由警察、特别机动队和特工队组成。宪法规定总统为总司令,但实际上总理掌控武装力量实权。现有警察5000人,归警察厅指挥,下属防暴队、空中侦察和救护队、海岸巡逻队。特别机动队有1500人。特工队隶属国家安全局,负责警卫和监督外交使团。1990年7月,政府决定建立快速干预旅,任务是维持社会治安。该旅装备精良并聘有外国教官培训。英国、法国和印度对毛武装力量的发展,包括培训人员、装备更新起着主要作用,如定期派遣军事专家赴毛训练特别机动队士兵。毛警察、特种部队官兵也被派往这三国接受训练。 

Mauritius has been extinct dodos. Mauritius was the only habitat it. Because ethnic confounding, multicultural, Jools diet also much by Cleo's dishes, dishes, Europe and India cuisine of hair, so a meal in integrating different local dishes often mix situation. Especially in the India cuisine of Mauritius diet culture influences, India dish of curry, spices and a "Briyani" rice dish was moved to Mauritius billings to diet. Mauritius once ruled by France, the French food is so popular dishes, but by the India food and Africa dishes, the "mutation" French dishes with pepper and spice for flavoring. Mauritius most agricultural land to grow sugar cane, besides being used for sucrose, also used to make rum (or "rum" or "rum"). Sugarcane is first introduced in 1638 by the Dutch Mauritius, mainly used in the manufacture of "a wine" (Arrack). By 1850, the French Pierre Charles Fran ç OIS Harel first advocated in Mauritius for rum distillery. SecA (Sega) is referred to as the Mauritius a unique local folk music and dance. SAIKA music from Africa, originated from the French colonial period. Therefore the lyrics content of traditional Saika music usually described in the slave hard life on the island; the modern develops into black residents complained by the unequal outlet. Now the Saika dance also turned into one of tourists performance. Performing much by male performers responsible for musical instrument, female performers responsible for dance performance. Over the years the use of musical instruments are the same, including the use of Goatskins tympanic ravanal tambourine (ravane), Ma ravanal wooden sandbox (maravann), triangle etc.. The female dancers wear colorful skirts, follow a rhythm. The island many hotels offer Saika cabaret. In 1847, Mauritius became the world's fifth stamp area. When issued two stamps, one is "red penny" (Red Penny), another is the "blue two pence" (Blue Two Pence). The two new stamps is perhaps the world's most famous and precious stamps. When the Portuguese in the early sixteenth Century found in Mauritius, they saw an unprecedented variety of birds, and its named dodo, meaning "". In 1681, the island has no trace of the dodo, main reason is Portugal and Holland settlers hunted the dodo, and deforestation in order to build the city, destroying the environment for the survival of the dodo. It is believed by the colonists brought to Jools boar hair were released into the wild, a serious threat to the propagation speed of the dodo. Whatever the reason, the Dodo was first found in humans but after two hundred years, disappeared from the earth. Press and publication: no news agency, news transmitting Western news agency international news to the press by telex. There are all kinds of 11 kinds of newspapers, have influence on the "express", "Mauritius daily", "sun", mainly by the French publishing, some mixed English. Mauritius radio and television company was established in 1964, the government has a major capital. Radio and television have three sets of programs. Radio every day in English, law, Indy, Kerrey Orr and Chinese radio. Most television programmes broadcast in French, followed by Hindi and Kerrey creole. In 2001, Mao announced the liberalization of radio and television, allowing the establishment of a private TV stations and three private radio stations.



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