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以色列 以色列国,The State of Israel。以色列(希伯来语:מְדִינַתיִשְׂרָאֵל希伯来语中意为“与神角力者”,阿拉伯语:دَوْلَةْإِسْرَائِيل‎)是一个位于西亚黎凡特地区的国家,位于地中海的东南方向。以色列北靠黎巴嫩、东濒叙利亚和约旦、西南边则是埃及。以色列在1948年宣布独立建国,目前人口已超过700万,主要来自犹太人族群,也是世界上唯一以犹太人为主体的国家。1981年6月7日,以色列空军发动巴比伦行动,出动14架战斗机摧毁伊拉克的核反应堆。

港口城市海法标志性建筑 “船型大厦”以色列历史悠久,是世界主要宗教犹太教、伊斯兰教和基督教的发源地。犹太人远祖是古代闪族的支脉希伯莱人。公元前13世纪末开始从埃及迁居到巴勒斯坦,曾先后建立希伯莱王国及以色列王国。公元前722年和586年,这两个王国先后被亚述人征服和被巴比伦人灭亡。 公元前63年罗马人入侵,大部分犹太人被赶出巴勒斯坦,流亡欧美各国。 公元7世纪巴勒斯坦被阿拉伯帝国占领,阿拉伯人从此成为该地居民的绝大多数。16世纪巴勒斯坦被奥斯曼帝国吞并。19世纪末,欧洲犹太资产阶级发起“犹太复国主义运动,并于1897年成立了“世纪犹太人复国主义组织”。  1917年英国占领巴勒斯坦,11月2日发表《贝尔福宣言》。 表示主张“在巴勒斯坦为犹太民族建立一个由公共法律保障的犹太人之家”。1922年,国际联盟通过了英国对巴勒斯坦的“委任统治训令”,规定在巴勒斯坦建立“犹太民族之家”。以后,世界各地犹太人 大批移居巴勒斯坦。1947年11月29日,联合国大会通过决议,决定在巴勒斯坦分别建立阿拉伯国和犹太国。1948年5月14日以色列国正式成立。2005年9月,以色列国防军在原加沙定居点附近的以军总部举行告别仪式并降下国旗,宣告以色列对加沙长达38年的占领就此结束。

Flag to the 1933 eighteenth session of the World Zionist Congress, the flag of Wolf Sen, the then officially identified as the organization's banner. The Jewish organizations have accepted immediately after the flag, for the vast number of Jewish people, have guided them for new life, to establish their own national struggle. They no matter in what place, or what the scene often use this flag. The establishment of Israel in 1948, in October 28th of that year, the provisional state committee meeting decided officially it as Israeli flag. At the same time, it also made a unified specifications: length 220 cm, width of 160 cm; the white background, the next there is a 25 cm wide blue stripes, the blue bar from the upper and lower edge of the 15 cm; two blue bar in the middle white on a "shield of David," "shield of David;" consists of 6 5.5 cm long blue line composed of two equilateral triangle; "shield of David," on the flag and the square edge offset. Symbolic satellite (i.e. six star, also known as the star of David, Salomon seal, Jewish Star), is a symbol of Judaism and Jewish culture. After the founding of Israel will be big satellite on the Israeli flag, so the satellite has become a symbol of israel. The development history of the Bohemian king Charlie IV in 1354 for the Jews of Prague made a red banner, above the shield of David, as a pattern. In fifteenth Century when the Jews were two golden five pointed star of red flag king of Hungary when summoned. So star past may also be Jews commonly used symbol. A manuscript in 1073 to have a pentagram. In 1460 the Jews of Budapest won the red flag from the king of Hungary, there are two large satellite and two stars. A large satellite large printed in Prague in 1512 the first Jewish Prayer Book cover. 1592 in Prague were allowed Jews to establish a its own flag, with a large satellite. In 1648 in recognition of their protecting Prague from the Swedish exploits the Jew of Prague once again be allowed to build a banner: a large satellite yellow red on the bottom, the center is a Swedish star. Jewish legend will satellite and Solomon Wang India together. The legend of King Solomon has a ring so that he can command the demons and ghosts. Another legend said the signs and David shield related. The legend of King David had a protective of his shield. After the French Revolution with the emancipation of the Jews in their choice of large satellite as their representative, as the cross is that of Christianity represented. Today satellites were placed in the Israeli flag. Satellite is in the shape of six Jiao stars. A similar sign in other faiths. In these beliefs using six point star might have used earlier than the jews. Today in Jewish culture, especially in the mysterious science it is used. In astrology satellite is also an important symbol. Some people think it is a symbol of the birth of the star of david. Some Orthodox Jewish people are opposed to the use of six point star because this symbol and the "magic" is associated with the occult. Although such a large satellite is still a Jewish legend and Kabbala school is the most important symbol. Some very conservative Jewish school against the use of large satellite because of its connection with zionism. Even so, the most conspicuous in the front door on the world most worship hall where a large satellite today. In Europe the last two hundred years of satellite is often used on the Jewish tombstone. It has become the universal symbol of the jews. National emblem for the rectangular shield emblem. There is a seven branched candlestick on the blue coat, according to records this Candlestick for temple in Jerusalem lit altar objects. Candlestick sides decorated with olive branches, symbol of the Jews' desire for peace. Candlestick underneath "the state of Israel by the hebrew".

自然地理根据1947年联合国关于巴勒斯坦分治决议的规定,以色列国的面积为1.52万平方公里。位于亚洲西部,北与黎巴嫩交界,东北部与叙利亚接壤,东面是约旦,西濒地中海,南连亚喀巴湾,是亚、非、欧三大洲结合处。沿海为狭长平原,东部有山地和高原。属地中海型气候。

Israel populated mainly by Jews, Arabs, Druze, Bedouin and czersk people.

建国时在特拉维夫(Tel Aviv),1950年迁往耶路撒冷 (Jerusalem),未得到普遍承认。1980年7月30日以色列议会通过法案,宣布耶路撒冷是以色列“永恒的与不可分割的首都”,但它的政府所在地仍在特拉维夫。”[ 对于耶路撒冷的地位和归属,阿拉伯国家同以色列一直有争议,阿拉伯国家要求“以色列撤出1967年以来它所占领的一切阿拉伯领土,包括阿拉伯的耶路撒冷(指东耶路撒冷)”。绝大多数同以有外交关系的国家仍把使馆设在特拉维夫] 。耶路撒冷市人口约63.4万(2000年)。

Israel is a parliamentary system of government, no constitution, only the act of Parliament, President and government law.



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