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冰岛 冰岛共和国(The Republic of Iceland,Islenska Lydveldid),意为“冰的陆地”,成立于1944年6月17日。因其为岛国,汉译成冰岛,是欧洲国名中唯一采用意译的汉语名称。冰岛虽意为“冰冻的陆地”,而实际上这块游离于北欧大陆之外的岛国,却是绿草茵茵,地热丰富,渔业发达的富饶国家。

国名由来冰岛之名的起源说法不同,有以下两种:  冰岛 1、源程序于发现者的最初印象。 公元4 世纪,希腊地理学家皮菲依曾称它为“雾岛”。但由于海岛远离大陆,交通不便,很少有人光临。公元864年,斯堪的纳维亚航海家弗洛克踏上岛岸,此岛才真正被 “发现”。后斯堪的纳维亚人、爱尔兰人、苏格兰人纷至沓来。当这些移民的船驶近南部海岸时,首先见到的是一座巨大冰川,即冰岛著名的瓦特纳冰川。人们对这个冰川留下了极深的印象,于是把该岛命名为“冰岛”。  2、源于殖民者的计谋。 最初的殖民者在岛上定居以后,不希望别人再来分享自己的“口中食”,故名“冰岛”,以阻止人们闻风而来。  国旗呈长方形,长与宽之比为25∶18。旗地为蓝色,红、白两色的十字将旗面分成四块:两个相等的蓝色正方形,两个相等的蓝色长方形。蓝色代表大海,白色代表白雪。蓝、白两色为冰岛的国色,体现冰岛的自然环境特点,即在蓝色的天空和海洋中,浮出“ 冰的陆地”——冰岛。冰岛自1262年起为挪威属地,14世纪同受丹麦统治,所以国旗上的十字图案源自丹麦国旗图案,表示出冰岛历史上与挪威、丹麦的关系。 国徽中心图案为绘有国旗图案的盾徽。盾徽上端有一只红舌金爪的白隼和一只白齿红舌金爪的龙,左侧是一头黑牛,右侧站着一位身披斗篷的白衣老人。隼、龙、牛和老人都是传说中的守护神。盾徽下端的石块代表冰岛多岩石的漫长海岸。  国家政要总统奥拉维尔·格里姆松(Olafur R. Grimsson) ,2004年6月,再次蝉联冰岛总统,2008年8月连任;过渡政府总理约翰娜·西于尔扎多蒂,2009年2月出任 。  自然地理面积为10.3万平方公里。是欧洲最西部的国家,位于北大西洋中部,靠近北极圈,冰川面积占8000平方公里,为欧洲第二大岛。海岸线长约4970公里。全境3/4是海拔400-800米的高原,其中1/8被冰川覆盖。有100多座火山,其中活火山20多座。华纳达尔斯赫努克火山为全国最高峰,海拔2119米。冰岛几乎整个国家都建立在火山岩石上,大部分土地不能开垦,是世界温泉最多的国家,所以被称为冰火之国。多喷泉、瀑布、湖泊和湍急河流,最大河流锡尤尔骚河长227公里。冰岛属寒温带海洋性气候,变化无常。因受墨西哥湾暖流影响,较同纬度的其他地方温和。夏季日照长,冬季日照极短。秋季和冬初可见极光。   人口冰岛 31.9万(2009年1月)。绝大多数为冰岛人,属日耳曼族。官方语言为冰岛语,英语为通用语言。近85.4%的人信奉基督教路德教派。 首都雷克雅未克(Reykjavik),人口20.1万人(2009年1月),年平均气温4.3℃。全国近三分之一的人生活在雷克雅未克。 行政区划全国分为23个省、21个自治市和203个教区。冰岛主要城市有首都雷克雅未克、阿克雷里、哈夫纳夫约杜尔、凯夫拉维克及科帕沃于尔。  语言冰岛语(冰岛文:íslenska,英文:Icelandic),冰岛的官方语言,属印欧语系、日耳曼语族北支(又称斯堪的纳维亚语支)。主要分布于冰岛本土,使用人口超过20万。

At the end of the eighth Century, the Irish monks first moved to Iceland. The second half of ninth Century, Norway began to immigrate to Iceland. Ad 930 years established the Federal Parliament and Iceland. In 1262, Iceland and Norway signed an agreement, Iceland Chen belongs to Norway. In 1380, both the ice and Danish rule. In 1904 by the internal autonomy. In 1918, the ice signed Dan federal law, provisions of ice as a sovereign state, but still the Danish Foreign Affairs control. In 1940, Denmark was occupied by Germany, ice Dan relationship disruption. The same year the British garrison troops replaced the British ambassador, the ice. Iceland

无铁路,海运和空运较发达。2004年交通运输情况如下:  公路总长12995公里。共有机动车约20.33万辆(其中小汽车17.54万辆,货车2.3万辆)。 水运共有1135艘船只,总吨位23.28万吨。其中渔船943艘,总吨位18.9万吨。雷克雅未克为主要港口,年到港船只1746艘。 空运共有飞机360架。凯夫拉维克机场为主要航空港,年运送旅客163.70万人次。

Position west across the Denmark Strait and the Greenland Sea, East and Weihai, in Greenland Sea, south of the Atlantic. Geological landforms since early Miocene late, by the the Atlantic ridge rift overflow Shangdi mantle material accumulation, which belongs to the volcano island. Iceland rock is basalt volcano rock, the most widely distributed, and andesite, rhyolite. On the island volcano, known as "the circle of Fire Island", a total of volcano 200 to 300, 40 to 50 active volcano. The main volcano volcano laki volcano, Warner, Hekla volcano Katla volcano, and so on. From 1963 to 1967 with the formation of a about 2.1 square kilometers of the island on the west coast of the volcano activity. The number of hot springs in Iceland is the world's crown, the island is about 250 alkaline hot springs, the largest hot spring can produce 200 liters of water per second. The basic terrain, the whole Iceland is a bowl shaped Highlands, around the coast mountains, the middle of a plateau. Mostly mesa, mesa height is in mostly 400 to 800 meters, the individual peaks of up to 1300 to 1700 meters, the highest peak of the Iceland is Warner Dahl Sihe Keshan (2119 meters). The lowland area is very small, the West and southwest sea ice distribution in plain and alluvial plain, plain area accounted for about 7% of the island. No glaciers flowing shoreline irregularity, multi Fjord, small bay. Other coastal area mainly for the beach, sand offshore formation lagoon. The climate of Iceland is temperate maritime climate, the capital of the pivotal not grams in July the average temperature of 10.6 degrees, the highest temperature of 24 degrees; in January the average temperature of 0 degrees, but the winter climate is constantly changing, many wind. Summer sunshine duration is longer, especially in mid to late 6, a day - phenomenon, the winter sunshine time is very short. Iceland is located at the junction of the Eurasian plate and the American plate, complicated geological conditions, geological activity volcano, earthquakes frequently, still have a lot of volcano. But the Iceland architectural firm, and the high incidence area of volcano, earthquakes in the inland, rarely cause disasters. The capital of Iceland, Reykjavik night Hydrological River radially flowing outward from central plateau, the main rivers are: the Faye John Delle M glacier. Iceland is not only the center of Quaternary ice sheet, and the plateau are modern glacier distribution, is a shield shaped ice cap, a small cirque glaciers, the area accounted for 11.5% of the island. Mainly Wartner's ice, ice, ice and Hofstede Alameda glacier, the Wartner Icefield covers an area of 8450 square kilometers, the thickness in a few hundred meters to 2 kilometers, is apart from the world's largest glaciers in the Antarctic and greenland. Tundra vegetation is widely distributed, grassland area accounts for 24%, so animal husbandry developed. Forest area accounted for about 1.37%, distributed in the leeward Xiangyang and slopes and valleys, shrub dominated by birch, in recent decades the introduction of many European and American cold pine, growing well. Natural resources Iceland latitude is high, but the North Atlantic Drift through West, South, East on three sides, so mild and humid coastal climate, only the north and northwest affected by the cold, more cold and dry. Land, arable land accounts for 0

资源渔业、水利和地热资源丰富,其他自然资源匮乏,石油等产品需要进口。可开发的年水力发电量为640亿度,地热能年发电量可达72亿度。2004年水力发电量为71.3亿度,利用地热发电14.8亿度。约90%的冰岛居民利用地热取暖。 农牧业冰岛纬度高,日照少,可耕地面积1000平方公里,占全国总面积的1%。主要农作物为土豆和谷类作物, 冰岛首都雷克雅未克大教堂 工业1、能源工业冰岛水力和地热资源得天独厚,能源工业非常发达,电力充沛,价格低廉。地热利用开发技术全球独有。2、冶金工业以炼铝、炼钢等高耗能产业在冰岛得到快速发展。目前已经有年产量17.8万吨,7万吨和9万吨的3个炼铝厂和一个年产量12万吨的硅钢厂外,目前建设的冰岛Reydarfjordur铝厂(年产铝32万吨)和扩建Grundartangi铝厂(年产铝17万吨)。到2008年,冰岛的铝年产量将达76万吨。冰岛将成为世界铝生产大国之一,其产量将占世界铝产量(1300-1400万吨)的5%。 医药业冰岛生物制药业近年飞速发展,目前已位于世界第四,成为冰岛主要经济支柱之一。这主要得益于冰岛生物医学和基因研究的先进和发展。 建筑物材料水泥、保温材料、铝瓦楞版、油漆涂料等不仅能满足国内需要,还大量出口。 汽车改装业拥有将普通吉普改装成具有大功率大尺寸轮车在冰川、高山、熔岩等地区行驶的特种吉普车的专利技术和设备。 计算机软件业游戏、商业、防毒消毒、教学及实验室软件发达,是世界主要软件出口国之一。 渔业冰岛主要产业。2004年,从业人数占总就业人口的6.4%,捕鱼量为172.78万吨,主要鱼种有毛鳞鱼、鳕鱼和青鱼,产值占国内生产总值的8.7%,绝大部分渔产品供出口,出口额占冰出口总额的54.3%。 服务业在国民经济中占重要地位。2004年服务业产值占国内生产总值的67.9%,从业人数占总就业人口的71.2%。 旅游业冰岛有三个国家公园:议会旧址国家公园(Thingvellir):位于冰岛西南部,首都东部50公里处,公元930年冰岛早期移民在此处举行第一次全国“人民代表大会”,成立了世界上最早的由民主方式选举出来的议会和第一部冰岛宪法。 瓦特纳冰川国家公园(Skaftafell):位于冰岛东南部,是冰岛面积最大的国家公园及自然保护区。该公园集冰川,火山,峡谷,森林,瀑布为一体,景色壮观。冰川峡谷河国家公园(J?kullsargljufur):位于冰岛北部,欧洲最大的瀑布和最长的峡谷之一,鸟类的栖息地。

Iceland chamber was established in 930 years, is the world's oldest parliament. It now has 63 members, by the national population, elections are held every four years. The head of state is the president, elected for a term of four years. The head of government is the prime minister, appointed by the president, and his cabinet to carry out the government's administrative responsibility.



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