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比萨斜塔 意大利(Repubblica Italiana),全称是意大利共和国。1861年3月17日,意大利王国宣布成立,位于欧洲南部,主要由亚平宁半岛和两个位于地中海中的大岛西西里岛和萨丁岛组成,其境内还有两个袖珍国——圣马力诺和梵蒂冈,首都为罗马,全国行政划分20个大区,110个省,8,103个市政府。意大利因其拥有美丽的自然风光和充满艺术气息的文化背景而被称为美丽的国度。1929年6月7日,意大利承认梵蒂冈独立。1939年5月22日,德国与意大利签定钢铁条约,确定两国军事同盟与支援关系。1946年6月2日,意大利共和国成立。1970年11月6日,意大利与中国建交以来。

国旗呈长方形,长与宽之比为3∶2。旗面由三个平行相等的竖长方形相连  意大利国旗构成,从左至右依次为绿、白、红三色。意大利原来国旗的颜色与法国国旗相同,1796年才把蓝色改为绿色。据记载,1796年拿破仑的意大利军团在征战中曾使用由拿破仑本人设计的绿、白、红三色旗。1946年意大利共和国建立,正式规定绿、白、红三色旗为共和国国旗。 国徽呈圆形。中心图案是一个带红边的五角星,象征意大利共和国;五角星背后是一个大齿轮,象征劳动者;齿轮周围由橄榄(oliva)枝叶和橡树叶环绕,象征和平与强盛。底部的红色绶带上用意大利文写着“意大利共和国”(Repubblica Italiana)。国球   足球(calcio)或(football)。 主要全国性节日 独立日:3月17日(1861年)。国庆日:6月2日(1946年)。全国解放日:4月25日(1945年)。 国花雏菊(margherita:也是一种由奶酪,番茄酱和罗勒制成的比萨饼的名字)。

Italy The climate and environment of 303138 square kilometers. Is located in the south of Europe, including the Apennine Peninsula and Sicily, Sardinia and other islands. North of the Alps as the border with France, Switzerland, the barrier of Austria and Slovenia, East, West, South three facing the Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic seas of the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Anhai. More than 7200 km long coastline. Throughout the 4 / 5 as the hills. There are the Alps and apennines. Italian, border of the Blanc peak elevation of 4810 meters, ranking second in Europe; there is the famous Vesuvius volcano and Europe's largest active volcano Etna volcano --. Is the largest river po. Great Lakes are Lake Garda, Lake Maggiore. Most of the region is subtropical Mediterranean climate. The annual average temperature in January 2 ~ 10 ℃, July 23 ~ 26 ℃. The average annual rainfall of 500 mm to 1000 mm. The population of 5788.82 millions (end of 2003). 94% of the residents in Italian, French minority groups, Latin, Roman, Fuliuli etc.. Speaking in Italian, the local French speaking and german. Most of the residents believe in the Catholic church. Administrative divisions of the country is divided into 20 administrative region, a total of 103 provinces, 8088 city (town). 20 administrative regions are: PieiTe Monte, Aosta Valley, Lombardy, Veneto, Trentino Alto Adige, Fu Liuli, Venice, Julia, Liguria, Emilia, Rome, Tuscany, Umbria, Lazio nirvana, Marche, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Sicily, Sardinia.

比萨斜塔公元前2000至前1000年,不断有印欧民族迁入。公元前27年至476年为罗马帝国时期。11世纪诺曼人入侵意南部并建立王国。12-13世纪分裂成许多王国、公国、自治城市和小封建领地。从16世纪起,意先后被法国、西班牙、奥地利占领。1861年3月建立意大利王国。1870年9月王国军队攻克罗马,最终完成统一。1914年第一次世界大战爆发,意大利先中立,后站在英、法、俄协约国一边对德奥宣战,并取得胜利。1922年10月31日,墨索里尼组成新政府,开始推行法西斯统治。1939年第二次世界大战爆发时,意大利起初中立,及至德国在法国取胜,乃于1940年6月 加入德国一方向英、法宣战。1943年7月墨索里尼被推翻。同年9月3日,由国王任命的巴多利奥内阁同协约国签定停战协定,意大利无条件投降,10月对德宣战。1946年6月举行公民投票,正式宣告废除君主制,成立意大利共和国。战后意政府更迭频繁,但政府的内外政策具有相对稳定性和连续性的特点。

The main political parties in Italy Power Party (ForzaItalia) in 1994 January by Silvio Berlusconi (SilvioBerlusconi) create. The party was established in 1994 March before the election, part of its main strength comes from Berlusconi's Fininvest West group and the traditional ruling party out of power after the fall of differentiation. Made in March of the same year, the national election (21% votes) and the European Parliament in the June election victory, become the political power of politics play a decisive role. Have power in elections in 1996 declined, the rate was only 20.6%; in 2000 April local elections force is strengthened. Victory in the 2001 national elections, winning 29.5% of the vote, becoming the first major party. In 2000 the number of 300000 party registration. Italy Democratic Party of the left (PartitoDemocraticodellaSinistraItaliana) founded in 1921 as the Communist Party of Italy, in 1991 changed the name. After the party in 1947 has been the main opposition party has meaning, organization mechanism complete and extensive mass basis. In the 1996 April election, the party got 21.2% of the votes, becoming the backbone of the ruling coalition. In 1998 February the party first initiative and promote the establishment of the premise not dissolved each organization, composed of Zuomindang, labour, the Republican left Communists, solidarity, movement of Christian society five left-wing forces "Democrats of the left" (DemocraticidiSinistra) of the new party. 670000 members (2000). In 2000 January, the party held in Turin a large, the election of Veltroni (WalterVeltroni) the Secretary, to stay on as chairman. In the 2001 national elections, Zuomindang won only 16. 6% of the vote, fell to the lowest point in history, losing ruling status. In November the same year, the party held in Pesaro two, the election of Fascino (PieroFassino) as the general secretary, Dalema as chairman. The daisy Consortium (Margherita) by the Italy people's Party (PPI), Democratic Party (Democratici), the Italy reform party and the European democratic alliance (UDEUR) among party and the centre left. Won 14.5% votes in the 2001 National election. Leaders of the former mayor of Rome, a centre left coalition candidate for prime minister Francesco Lutelli (FrancescoRutelli). National Alliance (AlleanzaNazionale) was founded in 1946, the original Italy social movement state right, because of the extreme right in color and more isolated. By the end of 1993 to enable the name. After the reform to a more moderate face, its power expands rapidly. In 1994 13 of votes in the March election, 5%, the first cabinet in politics. 1998 February held programme assembly, declared sever his relationship with fascist history, to establish a new right-wing party image. In 2000 the party registration number 532000. 12% of the vote in the 2001 June election, to return to the ruling status. The party leader, Gianfranco Feeney served as deputy prime minister. The reconstruction of Italy Communist Party (PartitodellaRifondazioneComunistaItaliana) in 1991 December re established in the original basis of the Communist Party of Italy. The party adheres to Traditional Left-wing ideology, emphasizing the maintenance workers, especially in the lower level of the interests of the masses. 8.6% of the vote in the 1996 general election, a centre left coalition parliamentary majority and indispensable force. The reconstruction of the 2000 Communists number is 90000. The 2001 election, reconstructing total exit centre left coalition independent candidates, the vote was 5%. General secretary Fausto Bertinotti (FaustoBertinotti). Northern Alliance (LegaNord) formerly known as the Lombard League, founded in 1984 April, the Party of small and medium-sized business interests, advocating federalism and local autonomy, its power and influence, mainly concentrated in the northern region. In the 1996 election, winning 10.1% of the vote. Because of the party to the federal system advocates extreme, all Italy's secession, so strongly opposed by the Italian government, Parliament and the general public opinion, influence and popularity has dropped. The party abandoned separatism in the 2000 local elections. Vote of only 3.9% in the 2001 general election, but due to the addition of the centre right and the court politics. Secretary Umberto Bossi (UmbertoBossi). White Alliance (Biancofiore) is a Catholic democratic Center (CCD) and the United Christian Democrats (CDU) the middle parties two right-wing camp, leaders are Pierre Ferdinando Cassini (PierFerdinandoCasini) and Rocco Buttiglione (RoccoButtiglione). The coalition was 5.8% and 3.2% respectively in the two election in 1996 and 2001 vote. Derek George Napolitano: president. Born in 1925 was born, Italy politician. In 1953, 28 year old Napolitano was first elected to the Italy house of representatives. Since then, he was elected member of Parliament in the house of Representatives, and served as the Communist party caucus chairman. 1992 June to 1994 April, Napolitano as the speaker of the house of representatives. From 1996 to 1998, he served as the Minister of the interior. In 2005, Napolitano was appointed Italy's president Ciampi senator for life. He also has two elected members of the European Parliament, former president of the European Parliament's Committee on constitutional affairs. In 2006 May, Napolitano was elected the new president, sworn in 15 days, became Italy's Eleventh president.

总统为武装部队最高统帅。总理对国防政策及军队建设负有全部责任。最高国防委员会为国防决策机构,总统任主席。国防部为最高军事行政机关,负责武装力量的建设和管理。国防参谋部为最高军事指挥机构,下辖陆军、海军、空军参谋部和宪兵总部。参谋长委员会为国防部最高咨询机构,成员有国防参谋长、三军参谋长、国防秘书长和宪兵部司令,由国防参谋长任主席。国防体制是以国防部长(文官)为首,国防参谋长和国防秘书长分别主管军事和后勤管理的双轨制。意大利是欧盟和北约成员。北约南欧盟军5个司令部均设在意大利境内。美国在意还设有许多军事基地和设施。2004年7月,意大利众议院通过军事改革法案。按照法案,意大利实施了一百多年的义务兵役制度将从2005年1月1日起取消 。

Italy compared with other developed western countries, Italy has poor resources, industry started late inferior position. Mineral resources only hydraulic, geothermal, gas, marble, mercury, sulfur and other resources, and a small amount of lead, zinc, aluminum and alumina etc.. The main industries of manufacturing industry, energy and raw materials needed to dependence on foreign imports of industrial products, 1/3 for export. State enterprises involved in more developed, Italy's annual crude oil processing capacity of 1 tons, "European refineries," said; steel output ranked second in Europe; plastics industry, tractor manufacturing, power industry in the world. Erie, and AI Feimu three major state-owned Eni consortium holds the economic lifeline, the national industrial output value of about 1/3, the business scope relates to the iron and steel, shipbuilding, machinery, petroleum, chemical, arms and other departments. Small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the economy, nearly 70% of gross domestic product by these enterprises to create, so people have been referred to as "the kingdom of small and medium-sized enterprises". In the leather, footwear, textile, furniture, jewelry, wine making, machinery, electronics and marble mining industry and other departments are dominant, with a high degree of specialization, adaptability, arrangement of labor advantage is flexibility and products export proportion is large. Family oriented micro enterprises "underground economy" is very prosperous, the output value of about 15% of gdp. Agricultural arable land area accounts for about 10% of the total area. Italy is rich in tourism resources, humid climate, beautiful scenery, cultural relics many, has the good beaches and mountains, highway up to four, mostly small and medium-sized hotels. Well developed tourism industry, tourism is an important source of income for the national balance of payments deficit. Tourism revenues of 150 trillion liras (about 714 hundred million US dollars), about 6% of GDP, net income of about 53 trillion liras (about 252 hundred million US dollars). Foreign trade is the mainstay of Italy's economy, foreign trade has surplus, after Japan, Germany after the world's third largest trade surplus country. Mainly imported oil, raw materials and food products, export to machinery and equipment, chemical products, household appliances, textiles, clothing, shoes, gold and silver jewelry and other light industrial products. Foreign markets mainly in Europe, import and export the main target for the EU and America. Transport the transport system of Italy belongs to one of the world's most perfect traffic system, Italy land area ranked 71 in the world. But the domestic various transportation system construction with total length in the world top 20, per capita traffic route length is in the top ten in the world. Highway: the domestic transport mainly depends on the road, the most satisfactory is the Italy traffic transport system category. The road system is one of the most developed road systems in Europe the most efficient. Italy per square kilometer area highway density ranks third in Europe, but the total length of the highway network share striking occupy the entire sum of 44 European countries in 16,.2%. The national highway 6600 kilometers long, in the EU is fourth. Railway: Italy railway network spread all over, a total of more than 3500 train station. The railway line has a lot of tunnel, the tunnel and the Swiss Sen PIO within 19.8 kilometers long, is the world's first long railway tunnel. Italy railroad is full-length 16356 kilometers of Britain, rows of Europe third, occupy 10.7% share of the European total railway length. Every year, carrying 473000000 passengers, 87000000 tons of cargo. In addition, Italy is also one of the world's first national High-speed Rail project. 1992 has been built High-speed Rail between Rome and Florence, Italy in 2004 High-speed Rail a total length of 1525 kilometers, the completion of the construction of the domestic High-speed Rail network. At present, Italy and France are invested 8500000000 euros to build Europe's largest multinational High-speed Rail connected Lyon in France and Italy, Turin, is expected to be completed in 2023. By air: Italy air system is also more developed. In recent years, air passengers up to one hundred million people. Close to 800000 tons of cargo. Italy air transport congenital conditions are favorable, to the capital city of Europe and the Mediterranean are not more than 3 hours of flight time, domestic airline is very dense, from north to south the flight time not exceeding 1 hours. Italy airport is currently a total of 98, of which the main airport of Rome Fiumicino, Milan Linate, Malpensa, Turin Casale etc.. Water: Italy water system is very developed, which occupies the main position for shipping, Italy nearly 8000 kilometers long coastline, the distribution of the 148 large and small port, major ports, Genoa port (second Mediterranean port) port of Naples (Italy's largest passenger port) port of Taranto (the largest Mediterranean military port). The national port traffic reaches as high as 90000000, the annual cargo throughput of 463 tons; has 280 kilometers of berthing dock, 550000 ships; Italy domestic water (canals and rivers) is not dominant, the length of 1500 km.



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