土耳其今日气温查询宗古尔达克,乌拉,乌沙克,塔尔苏斯,特拉布宗,泰基尔达,西利夫克,锡尔特,阿达纳等城市今日气温查询

土耳其 土耳其,北临黑海,南临地中海,东南与叙利亚、伊拉克接壤,西临爱琴海,并与希腊以及保加利亚接壤,东部与格鲁吉亚、亚美尼亚、阿塞拜疆和伊朗接壤。在安纳托利亚半岛和东色雷斯地区之间的,是博斯普鲁斯海峡、马尔马拉海和达达尼尔海峡,是一个横跨欧亚两洲的国家,独特的地理位置,宜人的气候条件使土耳其成为游人向往的乐园。1937年7月8日,阿富汗、伊朗、伊拉克和土耳其签订《互不侵犯条约》。

独特的地理位置,宜人的气候条件使土耳其成为游人向往的乐园。形状各异的现代化建筑,华丽肃穆的清真寺唤礼塔,飞跃于博斯普鲁斯海峡之上的跨海大桥,《荷马史诗》中的特洛伊城遗址,世界奇景卡帕多西亚,观鸟胜地库什湖,秀美的亚洛瓦温泉……迷人的自然风光,丰富的文物古迹使土耳其享有“旅游天堂”之誉。土耳其的安卡拉羊世界著名,人们用烤全羊招待宾客。土耳其人十分重视着装,爱赶潮流。土耳其大陆西起巴尔干,东至高加索,全长1000英里,向北延伸至黑海,南部濒临地中海,在欧洲国土面积仅次于俄国(301000平方英里),位居第二。它的气候温和,地形复杂,从沿海平原到山区草场,从雪松林到绵延的大草原。这里是世界植物资源最丰富的地区之一。 土耳其土耳其大陆长达5000英里的海岸线点缀着数处保存完好的爱琴海和地中海海滩。巍峨的阿勒山高达17725英尺,山顶终年积雪覆盖,景色最为壮观,吸引了众多游客。此外,这还是一个河流湖泊众多的国度,底格里斯河和幼发拉底河均发源于此。土耳其的气候类型变化很大。东南部较干旱,黑海被薄雾笼罩;地中海和爱琴海地区冬季温和,而多山的东部地区积雪期长达数月,异常严寒。一般来说,土耳其的夏季长,气温高,降雨少;冬季带来了降雪和冷雨。果园、麦田和水库储有充沛的雨水,葡萄园和去海滩游玩的人有充足的日照。气候多样性说明土耳其的农作物品种极为丰富。这里是世界上主要的烟草、阿月浑子(开心果)、葡萄干和水果蔬菜的产地之一。位于土耳其西北角的马尔马拉地区,包括东色雷斯,范围从埃迪恩到伊斯坦布尔,是绵延起伏的牧场和向日葵种植区,农牧业、渔业和轻工业发达。这一地区再往南,跨过马尔马拉海是一片优良的农产区,种植有水果、橄榄、葡萄和番茄等。渔业、矿业和葡萄酒加工业是这一地区的重要产业,布尔萨市(人口200万)是重要的食品加工和汽车生产地。伊斯坦布尔(人口920万)是土耳其最大城市和港口,也是全国金融和商业中心。博斯普鲁斯和达达尼尔海峡是战略性的水上通道,将爱琴海和地中海同马尔马拉海和黑海相连。土耳其监管着所有舰船的进出,也包括从俄国为数不多的不冻港开出的舰船,它们通过这两个海峡前往爱琴海和地中海的温暖海域。伊兹密尔(人口310万)是爱琴海地区最大的城市,这座城市所在地广布着肥沃的平原和河谷、丘陵和山脉。此地大面积种植橄榄、无花果、葡萄、向日葵、烟草等作物,同时也是一个重要的工业基地。伊兹密尔美丽的乡村风光、未开掘的历史古迹、旖旎的海滩和波光粼粼的湛蓝海水,令世界各地的游客流连忘返。托洛斯山脉构成了土耳其地中海地区的主干山脉,在绿宝石海岸跌宕下去,它自马特马利斯游船港口始,一直延伸至海岸的西端,经过欣欣向荣的安塔利亚市,直至东端的工农商业城市亚达那。这一地区盛产棉花、谷物、蔬菜和香蕉,森林也格外出名。它日益成为土耳其主要的旅游中心,吸引了日光浴爱好者、帆船驾驶爱好者和徒步旅行者,当然还有热衷考古的人士。 博斯普鲁斯海峡中部安纳托利亚是土耳其共和国的心脏地带,是一片海拔3000英尺的高原,错落分布着山脉、大河、盐湖和淡水湖泊。这片土地极利于小麦、棉花和瓜果的生长,也适宜放牧牛羊和马匹。春天到来的时候,野花遍地,包裹着绵延起伏的群山。土耳其首都安卡拉(人口370万)是一座现代化的城市,是在古罗马城市—安哥拉上发展起来的。黑海海岸有1000多英里的海岬和山脉,河川湍湍从陡峭的峡谷中流过。这片肥沃的海岸地区降水充沛,主要特产有:樱桃、榛子、奶制品、茶树和烟草。这是徒步旅游者的理想地点,群山中隐藏着古老的遗迹。东南部安纳托利亚气候炎热、干燥,以灌溉系统、农业、牧业、石油勘探和生产闻名。这一地区的阿月浑子(开心果)数一数二。底格里斯河和幼发拉底河发源于土耳其东部,蜿蜒流经东南部地区。一个耗资320亿美元的大坝、水库、水利发电厂和灌溉渠道项目—“东南安纳托亚利项目”正在推动地区经济的发展,灌溉着面积相当于爱尔兰国土的一片地区,提高了国家的农业产量,虽然土耳其已是为数不多的净食品出口国之一。东部地区多山,气温较低,降雨量适中。这里的农业发展环境更为苛刻,但是农民们仍种植小麦,放牧羊群。然而,该地区美丽宁静的高山为旅游业发展创造了条件。总之,土耳其是一片四季皆宜、品味万方的土地。沿海地区属亚热带地中海气候,内陆高原向热带草原和沙漠型气候过渡。温差较大。年平均气温分别为14-20℃和4-18℃。年平均降水量黑海沿岸700—2500毫米,地中海沿岸500—700毫米,内陆250—400毫米。土耳其行政区划等级为省、县、乡、村。全国共分为81个省、约600个县、3.6万多乡村。  

His birthplace is Xinjiang China al Taishan area, called the turk. By 7000 BC ago, Anatolia was inhabited, around 1900 BC by Indo European Hittites occupied, they then built a world power, until around 1200 BC perish. Later Phrygian and Lydian invaded Anatolia, but to the east by the local Armenia kingdom. Sixth Century BC, the Persian Empire occupied the area, then through Greece into the rule, the last in the L century BC also experienced the Roman rule. The kingdom of Armenia was always hostile to the Romans (later the Byzantines) and the boundaries between people's rest and later, Sarnia people. Byzantine rule, Constantin, Constantin Bo (now Istanbul) as the capital. In Eleventh Century, the Turkic nomadic tribes "Wu Gu Si" invaded anatolia. "An Kai Mai Wu Guth" tribes occupied the eastern and central Anatolia in twelfth Century. Kate Osman established the Osman was in the world. Osman in the initial stages of its expansion, have been the main force to maintain the Islamic faith against the Turks of Byzantine empire. From 13 to fourteenth Century, Osman captured the Xi'an Donato Leah and Southeast Europe. Byzantine territory, the Christian Balkan countries become their vassal, also conquered Dongan Donato Leah Turkmen principalities. In fifteenth Century, Osman Sultan force Balkan countries imposed direct rule, and the conquest of Constantinople (1453), the east of the Euphrates River (1468), West to the Hungarian territory under its rule range. At the end of sixteenth Century, the Osman Empire at its peak, its territory includes most areas most Balkan countries, most central Hungarian territory and the Middle East and North africa. Turkey's history of Sleiman I (1494, 1566) rule, empire began to decline in the political, administrative and financial. By 1718, Austria had the Turks from Hungary, Russia annexed Crimea in 1783. In nineteenth Century, the Osman empire lost control of Egypt and most of the Balkan countries. Local autonomy of minority originally "Millett" system allows different beliefs, but at the end of nineteenth Century, the system began to disintegrate, lead to riots increased, will lead to the first World War period Armenia people from genocide of the holocaust. In 1908, young Turkey revolution, in an attempt to restore the Empire, however in the Balkans has continued to suffer military defeat and loss of territory. During the first World War Turkey station in Germany and the Austro Hungarian Empire side. After the war, Turkey lost its province of Arabia and Asia Minor, but after a brutal civil war and the Greek War, Turkey is now the territory is determined at the Lausanne conference in 1923, Turkey became a republic, by Kemal is the first president. Osman of Sultan and Khalifa was canceled, Turkey began the process of modernization under the leadership of Kemal. Turkey history Kemal radically reform Turkey's political, economic and social systems. He advocated a new national identity thinking, make Turkey social non religion, reduce the dominance of Islam, replaced Arabia alphabet Turkish and using the Latin alphabet. He has also implemented a state-controlled economy development policy, later confirmed to have far-reaching impact of this policy. Kemal died in 1938, gradually parliamentary politics and the multi-party system has been established in Turkey, although there had been a period of instability and short period of military rule. The Second World War, Turkey remained neutral, post-war allied with the West and accept American military and economic aid. Turkey joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1952), is "a signatory of the Balkan entente" (1953), participated in the "Baghdad treaty" (1955, later renamed the central Treaty Organization), joined the European Economic Cooperation Organization and the European commission. In 1959 Turkey and Greece resolve lasted 3 years the Cyprus dispute. The Second Republic of Turkey was founded in 1961, through a new constitution. In 1963, Turkey became a member of the common market. Between Greek Cypriots and Turkey people's dispute, lead to a civil war in 1963 in there. Greece and Turkey are on the brink of war, but due to exert pressure on the UN, conflict control. In 1974, a coup in Cyprus Greek soldiers under the support of the government, Turkey army and invasion and occupation of northern cyprus. In 1980, because of Turkey's domestic political instability, be threatened by growing crises, the army in a bloodless coup took over the government and imposed martial law. Two years later, a new constitution by majority vote through. After parliamentary elections in 1983, martial law has been canceled. The ruling in the motherland party Prime Minister Ozal period (1983 ~ 1989), Turkey experienced a period of relative political stability and economic growth.

土耳其行政区划等级为省、县、乡、村。全国共分为81省、约600个县、3.6万多乡村。   土耳其全国分为三十四区八十一省。以下为全国的三十四区:   爱琴海地区(Aegean Region)   伊兹梅尔省   以弗所古城   Aeolis   Akdeniz kiyisi   小亚细亚(Asia Minor)   Bithynia   Cappadocia   Caria   Cataonia   Cilicia   Commagene   Dogu Anadolu   东色雷斯(Eastern Thrace)   加拉太(Galatia)   Güneydogu Anadolu   Hirfanli Baraji   Hurri   Ic Anadolu   Isauria   Karadeniz kiyisi   Keban Golü   Kemer Baraji   Lycaonia   Lycia   吕底亚(Lydia)   马尔马拉(Marmara)   Mysia   Oriens   Paphlagonia   Phrygia   Pisidia   Pontos   Pontus   Sariyar Baraji   Troas   Atatürk'ü Anma Gençlik ve Spor Bayram?

Since the pre historic times, Turkey has been a melting pot of different races and cultures. Starting in Eleventh Century, from the east to the Turks, they brought new components of Mediterranean Mongolians mixed race, ethnic composition of the country have had a decisive impact. The population of Turkey is the country's more than 86% of the population of Turkish language. The other major ethnic Kurds and arabs. Kurdish Kurdish language, there are about 1l% of the population speak such languages, the main passage in the eastern and southeastern areas. Arabic speaking population of about 2%, mainly in the southeastern part of anatolia. Almost all Turks are Muslims, Sunni dominated. A small amount of Christians and Jews live mainly in Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir. Turkey although the birth rate is high but the mortality rate is not very high, the population growth rate is relatively high. The nearly 40% of the population is under the age of 15. The population of 62000000 (1997 November). Turks occupy more than 80% of the approximately 15%, kurds. Turkish is the official language, 99% of the residents believe in islam. 85% of them belong to Sunni, Yu L. Allawi school.

土耳其政治现行宪法于1982年11月7日通过并生效,是共和国第三部宪法。宪法规定:土为民族、民主、政教分离和实行法制的国家。大国民议会为最高立法机构。实行普遍直接选举,18岁及以上公民享有选举权。只有超过全国选票10%的政党才可拥有议会席位。大国民议会共550个席位,议员根据各省人口比例经大选产生,任期5年。政府又称部长会议。土耳其议会通过新刑法典为加入欧盟铺路.总统阿卜杜拉·居尔,2007年8月28日正式就任。2007年5月16日,前总统塞泽尔七年任期满,碎后土耳其举行大选,最终副总理,外交部长居尔当选总统,并宣誓就职.总理雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安(RecepTayyipErdogan),2003年3月任职. 对外交往一贯奉行亲西方的政策,赞同推进西方民主化进程。注重经济外交,维护自身利益。重视与邻国建立和保持友好关系,强调发展与世界和地区大国的关系。主张以和平方式解决国家间争端。外交重心在西方,在与美国保持传统的战略伙伴关系的同时加强与欧洲国家的关系。已与欧盟实现关税同盟,目标是成为欧盟完全成员国。与亚美尼亚的关系  亚美尼亚 与土耳其东部接壤,两国拥有330公里的共同边界。由于对所谓的“亚美尼亚大屠杀”有不同看法,土亚两国一直没有建立正常外交关系。   亚美尼亚和土耳其伊斯兰盟友阿塞拜疆的领土争端也加深了土亚之间的罅隙,土耳其一直站在阿塞拜疆一边。由于阿塞拜疆和亚美尼亚就纳戈尔诺-卡拉巴赫地区主权归属僵持不下,土耳其从1993年开始关闭了与亚美尼亚的陆地边界,以示对阿塞拜疆的支持,对1991年才正式宣布独立的亚美尼亚实施贸易禁运。两国贸易主要通过格鲁吉亚进行,年贸易额达1亿美元。   近年来,土亚在改善关系上面临逐渐上升的现实需求和国际压力。土亚数次释放关系解冻的信号。2008年7月,土耳其时任外长巴巴詹表达了土政府与亚美尼亚实现两国关系正常化的意愿。同年9月,土耳其总统居尔前往亚美尼亚首都埃里温观看两国足球队2010年南非世界杯预选赛的比赛,成为第一个访亚的土耳其国家元首。2009年8月31日,在瑞士的斡旋下,土耳其和亚美尼亚发表联合声明,土亚在改善关系上迈出历史性一步。根据两国联合声明签署的协定,土耳其将在协定生效2个月内开放与亚美尼亚之间的边界。2009年10月10日,亚美尼亚和土耳其签署关于两国结束长期敌对状态并实现双边关系正常化的协定。   ◆ 小资料:“亚美尼亚大屠杀”   “亚美尼亚大屠杀”是指1915年至1917年土耳其奥斯曼帝国统治时期150万亚美尼亚人死亡的事件。土耳其历届政府均否认这是大屠杀事件。与中国关系中土两国友好交往历史悠久。伊斯坦布尔城曾是历史上著名“丝绸之路”的西端终点。自1971年8月两国建交以来,中土两国关系发展顺利。 2005年6月,塞泽尔总统对中国进行国事访问。2009年6月,居尔总统对中国进行国事访问,中土签署7份双边合作文件。 近年来,中土经贸合作发展迅速。2009年中土双边贸易额达100亿美元。

Turkey is the development of economy, the private and the public economy composition coexist, mainly in agriculture and manufacturing based. Although GDP growth has been faster than population growth, but the per capita GNP is still lower than the European countries. Turkey economic and agricultural GDP of nearly 1 / 5, the use of half of the labor force. In general, most food crops of Turkey can be self-sufficient. Most of the arable land used to grow food crops, including wheat and barley planting the largest area. Economic crops (cotton and tobacco) is an important export commodity. The narrow coastal lowlands of large-scale irrigation, production of hazelnut, non nuclear small grapes, raisins and fruit (Citrus, lemon and muskmelon), also growing foreign market supply of vegetables. Perennial grass in pastures, suitable for sheep, small numbers of cattle and goats. The forest is mainly coniferous forest, accounting for about 1 / 4 of the national area, mainly distributed in around the Black Sea, has very few development. Turkey mining industry to State-Owned Company, accounts for only 1% of gdp. Local mining iron ore, coal, lignite, bauxite and copper as the national important new industry to provide raw materials. Turkey is the main production country of chromite, mostly for export. Because the domestic oil resources are limited (only 1 / 6 of the demand), the country had to spend a lot of foreign oil imports. 2 / 3 of electricity production by the power plant, about 1 / 3 of electricity from hydropower station provides. Manufacturing using about 1 / 10 of the labor force, 1 / 5 of gdp. Despite the low productivity, but because cotton is planted, wages are low, the textile industry (including yarn, fabrics and carpets) in twentieth Century is still 70 to 80 years the rapid growth of the industry, although the productivity is not high. Petrochemical industry is developing very fast in the early 80's. Turkey has become the major steel producing countries in the middle east. Engineering machinery industry has developed rapidly. Tourism is an important source of national income. Unemployment in the countryside is more serious than the city, but outside of Istanbul, there is a shortage of skilled workers and management personnel. According to the labor law enacted in 1947, the trade union as a legal organization, since the rapid development of; workers union is the largest organization. In 70, Turkey many unskilled workers to the Western European countries (mainly Germany) looking for work, but 80 years later, to go abroad to work the trend has been from Europe to the Middle East countries. The government to tighten spending plans in the 80's, because the foreign worker remittances increased, so that Turkey can greatly offset the long-standing trade deficit. The total length of the railway system in Turkey is 8400 km, the highway system is only about 1 / 7 of paved, but the car transportation is still the dominant. International and domestic shipping rely on Istanbul port, Izmir port and Mel Xin Hong, but the main shipping terminal petrochemical products in Iskenderun near. International Airport is located near Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir. Agricultural and industrial products in the main export commodities roughly half and half. The main export trade partners are Germany, Italy and America. Iraq's oil is the main import goods. Germany Turkey large imports of machinery and equipment are provided.



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