法国今日气温查询塞纳河畔维特里,维勒班,特鲁瓦,土伦,图尔宽,图尔,吕埃尔-马尔迈松,雷恩,阿让特伊等城市今日气温查询

法国巴黎的埃菲尔铁塔 法国(La France),全称为法兰西共和国,现在是法兰西第五共和国,位于欧洲西部,与比利时、卢森堡、德国、瑞士、意大利、摩纳哥、安道尔和西班牙接壤,隔英吉利海峡与英国隔海相望。法国是第一、第二次世界大战的主要战胜国,因而成为联合国安理会常任理事国,对安理会议案拥有否决权。法国亦是欧盟和北约创始会员国之一,八国集团之一和欧洲四大经济体之一,亦是《申根公约》的成员国。首都巴黎。

地图 环境气候面积为551602平方公里。位于欧洲西部,与比利时、卢森堡、瑞士、德国、意大利、西班牙、安道尔、摩纳哥接壤,西北隔拉芒什海峡与英国相望,濒临北海、英吉利海峡、大西洋和地中海四大海域,地中海上的科西嘉岛是法国最大岛屿。地势东南高西北低。平原占总面积的三分之二。主要山脉有阿尔卑斯山脉、比利牛斯山脉、汝拉山脉等。法意边境的勃朗峰海拔4810米,为欧洲最高峰。河流主要有卢瓦尔河(1010公里)、罗讷河(812公里)、塞纳河(776公里)。地中海上的科西嘉岛是法国最大岛屿。边境线总长度为5695公里,其中海岸线为2700公里,陆地线为2800公里,内河线为195公里。西部属海洋性温带阔叶林气候,南部属亚热带地中海式气候,中部和东部属大陆性气候。平均降水量从西北往东南由600毫米递增至1000毫米以上。 行政区划分为大区、省和市镇。省下设专区和县,但不是行政区域。县是司法和选举单位。法本土共划为22个大区、96个省、4个海外省、4个海外领地、2个具有特殊地位的地方行政区。全国共有36565个市镇,其中人口不足3500人的有3.4万个,人口超过3万人市有231个,人口超过10万的市有37个。22个大区是:阿尔萨斯、阿基坦、奥维尔涅、布尔高涅、布列塔尼、中部地区、香槟-阿登、科西嘉、弗朗什-贡岱、巴黎大区、朗克多克-鲁西翁、利姆赞、洛林、南比利牛斯、北加莱海峡、下诺曼底、上诺曼底、卢瓦尔地区、皮卡尔迪、布瓦图-夏朗德、普洛旺斯-阿尔卑斯-蓝色海岸、罗讷-阿尔贝斯。4个海外省是:瓜德鲁普、马提尼克、法属圭亚那、留尼旺。4个海外领地是:法属波利尼西亚、新喀里多尼亚、瓦利斯群岛和富图纳群岛、法属南半球和南极领地。2个地方行政区是:马约特岛、圣皮埃尔岛和密克隆岛。

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公元前高卢人在此定居。公元前1世纪,罗马的高卢人总督恺撒占领了全部高卢,从此受罗马统治达500年之久。公元5世纪法兰克人征服高卢,建立法兰克王国。10世纪后,封建社会迅速发展。1337年英王觊觎法国王位,爆发“百年战争”。初期,法大片土地被英侵占,法王被俘,后法国人民进行反侵略战争,于1453年结束百年战争。15世纪末到16世纪初形成中央集权国家。17世纪中叶,君主专制制度达到顶峰。随着资产阶级力量的发展,1789年法国爆发大革命,废除君主制,并于1792年9月22日建立第一共和国。1799年11月9日(雾月18日),拿破仑·波拿巴夺取政权,1804年称帝,建立第一帝国。1848年2月爆发革命,建立第二共和国。1851年路易·波拿巴总统发动政变,翌年12月建立第二帝国。1870年在普法战争中战败后,于1871年9月成立第三共和国直到1940年6月法国贝当政府投降德国,至此第三共和国覆灭。1871年3月18日,巴黎人民举行武装起义,成立巴黎公社。同年5月底,被法国军队残酷镇压。第一次、第二次世界大战期间法国遭德国侵略。1944年6月宣布成立临时政府,戴高乐 (右图 )担任首脑,1946年通过宪法,成立第四共和国。1958年9月通过新宪法,第五共和国成立,同年12月戴高乐当选总统。

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法国目前的国防体制是在戴高乐政府1959年《国防组织法》基础上建立起来的。总统是武装力量的最高统帅,在其领导下的国防决策机构包括内阁会议、国防委员会、小范围国防委员会和高级国防委员会,其中内阁会议是最高决策机构,负责制定国防政策、任免将级军官,有权宣布总动员、发布戒严令和紧急状态令等。法奉行独立自主的防务政策,逐步推进军队职业化改革,以职业兵役制替代义务兵役制;由核潜艇和战略轰炸机构成海空二位一体的核打击力量;国防工业进一步实施以合并、推动高科技及真正走上市场为内容的改组。 武装力量由陆、海、空三军和宪兵组成。达喀尔军事基地是法国军队在非洲设立的的第三个军事基地,其余两个分别设在加蓬的利伯维尔和吉布提共和国的吉布提市。2011年7月31日,法军撤离设立在塞内加尔的军事基地,标志着塞内加尔正式收回法国设立在其境内的军事基地。塞内加尔在收回塞境内的法国军事基地后将继续与法国进行军事合作,法国还会向塞派驻部队,但将以设立地区性军事合作机制的方式出现。法军将与西非经济共同体15个成员国的军队建立双边及地区性军事行动合作关系。

France France tourism developed economy, gross domestic product in the world. The major industrial sectors of mining, metallurgy, steel, automobile manufacturing, shipbuilding, machinery manufacturing, textile, chemical, electrical, power, daily consumer goods, food processing and building industry. Emerging industries, petrochemical, nuclear energy, aviation and space marine development, rapid development in recent years, accounts for the proportion in the industrial output increasing. The ability of nuclear power equipment, the petroleum and the petroleum processing technology ranked second in the world, second only to American; aerospace industry after USA and CIS, ranking third in the world. Iron and steel industry, textile industry accounted for sixth of the world. But still the traditional dominant industry in the industrial sector, including iron and steel, automobile, construction for the three pillars. The proportion of industry in the national economy had a negative trend. Third industry accounted for the proportion to rise year by year in the French economy. In telecommunications, information, tourism service and the transportation department business volume increased considerably, the service industry practitioners Yue Zhanzong 70% of the labour force. The French trade is developed, the most profitable food sales, in a wide variety of shops, supermarkets and chain stores, the most dynamic, accounting for almost half of the total business activity. French iron ore reserves of about 10 tons, but the low grade, mining costs are high, the most dependent on imports of iron ore. Coal reserves have been nearly exhausted, is expected to close all coal mines in 2005. Bauxite reserves of about 90000000 tons. The non-ferrous metal reserves are very few, almost all rely on imports. Oil reserves are only about 30000000 tons. Natural gas reserves of 250000000000 cubic meters, 99% oil needs, 75% dependent on imported natural gas. Water resources of about 10000000 kilowatts, energy relying mainly on nuclear, hydro and geothermal resources development and utilization of the full. Forest area of about 15300000 hectares, the EU accounted for 21.1% of total forest area, the per capita green area of 0.3 hectares, the forest coverage rate of 28.2%. France is the EU's largest agricultural producer, is also the main agricultural product export country in the world. The grain output occupies the European grain yield by 1/3, exports of agricultural products after American ranking second in the world. With the French city population, the rural population is decreasing, a total area of 54919000 hectares of arable land, of which 61% agricultural land, forest land, 27% to 12% to non agriculture land. 96% of agricultural land for families. The traditional agriculture area structure is: the north area of grain, oil, vegetables, sugar beet production areas, Western and mountain as fodder crop producing areas, the Mediterranean and the southwest for perennial crops (grape, fruit) the main producing areas. Mechanization is the method the main means to improve agricultural productivity, has been basically realized the agricultural mechanization. The food and agriculture industry is the pillar industry of the law export trade surplus for the. The European top 100 agricultural food industry group has 24 in France, 100 of the world's agricultural food industry group has 7 in France, the French agricultural and sideline products exports ranked first in the world, accounting for 11% of the world market. France is the world famous tourist country, the average annual reception of foreign visitors about 70000000 people, more than the native population. The Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic ocean scenery district of the capital Paris, and the Alps are tourist attractions, in addition to some famous historical city, on the Loire Castle group, Brittany and Normandy village, the island of Corsica. Some French famous museum collection of precious heritage of world culture. France is a big trading nation in the world, has two characteristics: one is the foreign trade imports more than exports, the trade deficit, the imports include energy and industrial raw materials, exports mainly machinery, automobile, chemical products, steel, agricultural products, food, clothing, cosmetics and arms, the French Wine is famous all over the world, wine exports accounted for half of world exports. French fashion, French cuisine, the French perfume will be well-known, far and near in the world; the other is the rapid growth of technology export non products, pure technology export status in the whole export trade in the increasingly prominent. The main source of the French government fiscal revenue is tax, tax is higher than the United States, Japan and other countries, mainly from the value-added tax, other income tax, corporate tax, social welfare tax etc..



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