土库曼斯坦今日气温查询乌夫拉,土库曼巴什,捷詹,萨拉戈特,阿什哈巴德凯希,卡拉卡拉,达尔甘阿塔,别济梅恩,阿什哈巴德等城市今日气温查询

土库曼斯坦(土库曼语:Türkmenistan)是一个中亚国家,苏联加盟共和国之一,名称为土库曼苏维埃社会主义共和国,1991年从苏联独立。

土库曼斯坦夜景 公元前1000年,土库曼境内出现阶级社会。公元前6世纪后,一直连续不断被外族人入侵和统治。 历史上曾被波斯人、马其顿人、突 厥人、阿拉伯人、蒙古鞑靼人征服。公元9-10世纪受塔赫里王朝、萨曼王朝统治。11-15世纪受蒙古鞑靼人统治。15世纪基本形成土库曼民族。16-17世隶属于希瓦汗国和布哈拉汗国。19世纪60年代末至80年代中期,部分领土并入俄国。土库曼人民参加了1917年的二月革命和十月社会主义革命。1917年12月建立苏维埃政权,其领土并入土耳其斯坦苏维埃社会主义自治共和国、花拉子模和布哈拉苏维埃人民共和国。在划定民族管理区后,于1924年10月27日建立土库曼苏维埃社会主义共和国,并加入苏联。1990年8月23日,土库曼最高苏维埃通过了国家主权宣言,1991年10月27日宣布独立,改国名为土库曼斯坦,同年12月21日加入独立国家联合体。 2005年8月26日在喀山会议上宣布退出独立国家联合体。2006年12月21日,总统萨帕尔穆拉特•尼亚佐夫因心脏骤停而逝世。古尔班古雷•别尔德穆罕默多夫成为代总统。2007年2月11日,举行总统选举。别尔德穆罕默多夫当选。

Turkmenistan The natural environment Area of 488100 square kilometers, Kazakhstan is second only to the second largest central Asian countries: ranking fifty-second in the world, but slightly smaller than Spain, bigger than California. A landlocked country of Turkmenistan is located in the southwest of central asia. West of the Caspian Sea, north of Kazakhstan, bordering with Uzbekistan to the northeast, East Afghanistan, south of Iran. Throughout most of the lowland, plain at an altitude of 200 meters, 80% of the territory was Cara Kum desert. Southern and Western kopet Dagh and parrot Meads mountains. The main rivers are the Amu Darya, Jie Zhan River, Moore River and Gabe atrek, mainly distributed in the east. Across the Southeast Cara Qom, the Grande Canale 1450 kilometers, an area of about 300000 hectares of irrigation. Is a strong continental climate, is one of the most arid regions of the world. Turkmenistan is located in Himalaya -- the Mediterranean seismic belt, often by the earthquake threat. The capital of Ashkhabad once the catastrophic earthquake in October 6, 1948, resulting in many deaths. Turkmenistan is near the Caspian Sea coastline is 1768 kilometers long, the goods by waterway exports by Russia's Volga River and don. The main city in addition to the capital outside of Ashkhabad, and Linhai city soil database (Turkmenba Manbach y, the old name Krasnow Wasik /Krasnovodsk) and Darshan Gu Azee (Da Oguz). Climate Turkmenistan Turkmenistan is located at the center of continental Asia, so a typical temperate continental climate, here is one of the driest regions in the world. The average annual temperature is 14 ℃ -16 ℃, day and night, and the great temperature difference between winter and summer, the summer temperature up to 35 ℃ (long-term extreme record ever in the southeastern Karakum 50 ℃), close to the mountains of Afghanistan in the winter of Gushgy, low temperature -33 ℃ can be see. The annual precipitation is 80 mm from the northwest desert, increasing to the southeast mountain 240 millimeters per year in the spring, the rainy season (January to May). Kopet DAG is the highest rainfall areas. Resources Turkmenistan resources Turkmenistan is rich in mineral resources, mainly oil, natural gas, Glauber's salt, iodine, nonferrous and rare metals. According to the official data of soil, the soil of oil and natural gas reserves of 208 tons and 24.6 prospective trillion cubic meters, ranking the forefront of the world. The oil and gas industry as the pillar industry of Turkmenistan. Soil main crops include cotton, wheat and rice. Turkmenistan people are good at weaving carpets, woven with fine wool carpet is well known in the world. Most of the country's land is desert, but the rich oil and gas resources. Natural gas proven reserves of 22.8 cubic meters, accounting for about 1/4 of the world's total reserves, oil reserves of 120 tons. Traffic Traffic to the railway, highway and oil and gas pipelines. Railway 2300 kilometers, highway 13600 kilometers. At present only the capital city of Ashkhabad International Airport, flights and more than a dozen countries and regions. Ashkhabad International Airport is very close to downtown, buses and taxi to the airport is very convenient. The main city have soil flights connecting, highway, railway transportation is also more convenient. Soil airport requirements, such as by soil flight, arrived at the airport 2 hours in advance. Administrative divisions Turkmenistan Administrative divisions of Turkmenistan consists of 5 states and 1 municipalities directly under the central government, 16 city and 46 districts under the 5 states. The following is a list of the States and the municipalities directly under the central government (in parentheses is the capital): Ashkhabad (municipality) ahal province (Ashkhabad) Balkan States (Balkan Nabaa de) Darshan Gu Azee (Darshan Gu Azee) and Leo Bappoo S (Cu Manal Bud) and Ma Leizhou (Ma Lei)

旅游景点 1、地震纪念碑 土库曼斯坦 位于阿什哈巴德市中立广场上, 紧邻中立门和总统府。1998年10月6日建成。纪念碑分为上下两部分。上部是一只十五米长的青铜公牛,公牛的颈上顶着一个皲裂的球体——象征着地球,裂开的地壳上有一位女子双手擎着小孩。设计思想取材于突厥民族的传说:他们认为地球是由一头巨牛驮着。女子与小孩则象征着永恒和人类的延续。下部是基座,基座的内部是地震博物馆,主要展出一些有关阿什哈巴德48年地震以前、地震后以及现今的风貌的图片。在博物馆入口处的墙上有一座壁钟,时针指着1点12分-阿什哈巴德地震的发生时间,以纪念这一惨剧-1948年10月6日凌晨1点12分阿什哈巴德发生里氏9-10级地震,死亡16万人,整个城市几乎被完全摧毁。 2、中立门 是阿什哈巴德市主要景点之一,位于中立广场,主建筑高75米,有电梯通往观景台和咖啡厅。三个支撑脚分别代表新土库曼斯坦三个不可分割的基础:中立、独立和民族团结。顶部12米高的尼亚佐夫总统金像随太阳方向旋转。1995年12月12日,联合国185个成员国一致同意赋予土库曼斯坦永久中立国地位,为纪念这一历史事件,土于1998年建成了中立门,它象征着土和平和开放的对外政策,展示了对世界的友好态度,表明对人类幸福未来的乐观和信心。 3、鲁赫耶特宫(会议和艺术宫)   位于总统府对面,已成为阿什哈巴德市的象征之一。宫殿的大理石主体和天蓝色的圆顶与市中心建筑群浑然一体。会议大厅可容纳2800人,根据需要还可用作歌剧厅、话剧厅和电影厅。一层设有各国首脑大厅。由法国“布伊格”公司承建, 1999年12月峻工。土第9届长老委员会、人民委员会和民族复兴运动联席大会于去年12月27-29日在此召开。 4、地毯博物馆 位于阿什哈巴德市中心,1993年3月20日经总统批准建立。博物馆面积1178平方米,陈列不同时期各种图案地毯、挂毯共 1000余件。馆内展出2块巨型地毯,一块为土最大的地毯,294平方米(14×21),重1吨;另一块为189平方米(18×10.5)。此外,还展有百万线头地毯(1平方米有1148000个线头)和双面地毯等。土库曼地毯蕴含着土库曼民族的审美情趣。土库曼民族的各个支系都有自己独特的地毯纹饰。现今的土国旗和国徽上都绘有地毯纹饰。 5、土库曼斯坦国家博物馆 由土耳其出资兴建,1998年11月12日开馆。博物馆位于阿什哈巴德市南侧,气势恢宏,占地22500平方米,16000平方米用于展览。主楼设会议厅,展厅、办公室、仓库、技术修复部和咖啡厅等。4个半圆形露天剧场在主楼外侧。博物馆展厅设独立厅、自然厅、原始史厅、古代厅、中世纪纪厅、民俗厅等,展品约2万件。 6、阿哈尔捷金马和种马场 关于阿哈尔捷金马的记载最早见于公元前4-3世纪。此马产于土库曼斯坦科佩特山脉和卡拉库姆沙漠间的阿哈尔绿洲,是经过三千多年培育而成的世界上最古老的马种之一。此马体态匀称,威武膘悍,力量大、速度快、耐力强,性情暴烈,但驯服后却非常顺从。马神态威严,步伐轻盈。阿哈尔捷金种马场位于阿什哈巴德西南郊,始建于1922年,前身为里海养马厩,1992年改名为尼亚佐夫总统种马场。去年尼亚佐夫总统访华时赠给江泽民主席一匹名为“阿赫达什”(意为“白石”)的阿哈尔捷金马尚驯养在此。现土库曼斯坦共有五个国营大型马场,阿哈尔捷金马总数约2000匹。近年土致力于向国际市场介绍阿哈尔捷金马,同美、法、俄、瑞典和澳大利亚等国有合作。

President Berdimuhamedow In May 18, 1992 through the first constitution, the provisions of the Turkmenistan national democracy, legal system and the secular, the president of the Republic of three powers, legislative, administrative, judicial independence and mutual balance and constraint. The president is head of state and supreme head of the executive. The people's Committee for the supreme power in a state representative, legislative and judicial powers belong to the National Congress and the courts. In December 27, 1995 the people's Committee for the modification and supplement of the constitution, will Turkmenistan neutral position in the constitution, but also embodied in the national anthem and flag. In 1999 December, Turkmenistan people's Committee and the parliamentary joint resolution, authorized Niyazov "indefinitely, the exercise of presidential power". In 2003 August through a new constitution, Turkmenistan does not recognize those who hold a foreign passport, to have the nationality of other countries is the soil of citizens. In 2005 February, Niyazov announced to abandon the Turkmen people give him life president position. Turkmenistan people's Council by election law, decided to Turkmenistan's presidential election will be held in 2010. According to the new election law, the president for a term of five years, up to two term, presidential candidates proposed by the people's committee. International Relations Hu Jintao talks with President of Turkmenistan diplomatic policy In 1992 China joined the UN in March. In December 12, 1995, the fiftieth session of the General Assembly adopted a resolution, admitted the soil as a permanent neutral country. Turkmenistan neutrality and the full range of foreign policy, and the Turkmen government leadership and civic groups have only selectively participate in regional alliance activities. Turkmenistan does not have with the neighbouring emerging countries in Central Asia, close to the American after independence, but because Turkmenistan and American "enemies" of Iran because there are many large cooperation in energy and transportation, good relations and the soil, the United States is not close relationship. While Turkmenistan and Russia are also due to historical origins in economic, military ties have become entangled in the relationship. In recent years, Turkmenistan's diplomatic increasingly "have no contact with anyone," August 26, 2005 in Kazan meeting in Turkmenistan announced its withdrawal from the Commonwealth of Independent States, and forced the Russian people can only choose one of them for Russia or Turkmenistan nationality, if give up Turkmenistan citizenship will lose in all property in Turkmenistan. And China relationship In December 27, 1991, China recognizes the independence of Turkmenistan. In January 6, 1992, Turkmenistan established diplomatic relations with China. Since the establishment of diplomatic ties, bilateral high-level exchange of visits between the leaders of continuous, rapid development of bilateral relations, bilateral cooperation in various fields of strengthening. In 2006 April, President Niyazov paid a state visit to Chinese, the two sides signed a joint statement. In 2007 July, President Berdymukhamedov paid a state visit to China, the two countries signed a joint statement. In 2007 November, Premier Wen Jiabao on an official visit to Turkmenistan. In 2006, the bilateral trade volume of $179000000, a year-on-year growth of 62.4%.

土库曼斯坦 土库曼斯坦独立后始终坚持经济稳定、快速发展的模式,加速向市场经济过渡。土2003年出台的2020年前发展战略指出,要把土建设成保证居民生活高标准、社会经济指标达到世界高水平的不断发展的强国。2008年,土国内生产总值约合154亿美元,同比增长10.5%。 石油和天然气是土库曼斯坦国民经济的支柱产业,农业主要种植棉花和小麦。石油产量从独立前的年产300万吨增加到现在的1000万吨,天然气年产量达到600亿立方米,出口450亿到500亿立方米。肉、奶、油等食品也已完全能够自给自足。土库曼斯坦还新建了多座火电站,本国公民用电全部免费。 土库曼斯坦首都阿什哈巴德 改革政策 以石油天然气工业为支柱产业。农业主要种植棉花和小麦。独立后制订发展经济的“十年稳定”纲领和1997-2001年社会经济发展构想及加速向市场经济过渡的“一千天计划”,分阶段进行以承包责任制为主的农村改革和企业私有化进程,逐步向市场经济过渡。 经济转轨的原则是:建立国家强有力宏观调控下的以社会为优先取向的混合性市场经济。1999年尼亚佐夫总统又提出了“土库曼斯坦至2010年社会经济改革战略”,指出土未来的战略目标是在市场经济和进行有效的国际合作基础上,建立保障居民有较高生活水平的经济发达国家;该战略的实施分为两个阶段进行:第一阶段(2000-2005年),将对经济结构和技术设施进行改革和改造,提高部门和企业的效益和竞争能力,保证经济的增长速度(平均增长速度不低于18%)。第二阶段(2006-2010年)的任务是保持已经取得的经济增长速度,经济结构向资本含量低的领域调整,逐步形成合理的工业结构,保证经济的稳步增长。1999年工业结构调整不断深入,并初见成效,加工领域产值进一步提高,国民经济发展严重依赖天然气出口拉动的状况初步得到改善。工业占国内生产总值的32%,天然气占国内生产总值的8%。在工业增长的16个百分点中加工工业,包括轻工业、食品工业占14个百分点。农业发展较快,1999年产值占国内生产总值的26%,增长26%。全年货币马纳特官方汇率稳定,但黑市汇价起跌幅较大,曾一度达1美元:20000马纳特。 中国土库曼斯坦天然气合作 中土合作 土库曼斯坦向华增供百亿立方米天然气,中国与土库曼斯坦两国进一步扩大能源领域的合作。在现有合作基础上,进一步扩大对中国的天然气供应规模。土库曼斯坦原拟每年向中国出口300亿立方米的天然气。 中国石油天然气集团公司(下称中石油)总经理蒋洁敏与土库曼斯坦内阁成员、主管油气的副总理塔格耶夫签署《中国石油天然气集团公司与土库曼斯坦国家天然气康采恩关于扩大天然气合作的框架协议》。2006年至2007年,中土两国分别签署了中土天然气管道项目,天然气购销及阿姆河右岸油气田产量分成等协议。根据当时两国签署的协议,在未来30年内,土库曼斯坦每年将向中国出口300亿立方米的天然气,并成为西气东输二线的主供气源。 其中,130亿立方米为中石油在该国阿姆河右岸区块合作开发的合同分成天然气,剩余170亿立方米为购销协议天然气。阿姆河天然气项目是中土两国目前合作开发的最大的海外天然气项目,该项目已于六月底顺利启动,进入实质性建设阶段。中国国家主席胡锦涛和土库曼斯坦总统别尔德穆哈梅多夫,出席了在土库曼斯坦首都阿什哈巴德总统府进行的签字仪式。同日,蒋洁敏和土库曼斯坦国家天然气康采恩总裁霍特让穆哈蔑多夫,还签署了《中国石油天然气集团公司与土库曼斯坦国家天然气康采恩天然气购销协议技术协议》。 

National Costume Turkmenistan National Turkmenistan national costume for men in black, white and brown leather sewing hat (in the heat of the desert area, wearing this hat in winter and cool in summer, but also in Paris and Moscow ladies a decorative collar), carefully crafted long shirts, trousers and Eastern robe. The Turkmen women often wear long and ankle, collar carefully embroidered dress. The Turkmen girls love to wear headscarves, braid and hair with various decoration. Girls are usually green, purple and bright blue cloth sewn garments, in winter and spring love wearing Oriental robes. Turkmenistan bride decorated with unique and complex is known, usually gold, silver, copper, iron and other metal building with these ornaments, one of the more important headdress, hair ornaments, pectoral, forehead decoration, bracelet and rings. The bride's dress for the Oriental silk robes, also used to wear the evil triangle sachet, usually written above the poem or motto, made of leather and silk. Religious belief The vast majority of the Turkmen people of Sunni Islam believers, strictly follow the teachings of islam. In addition, the ancient Turks Shamanism and Zoroastrianism also Turkmen religious ideas have a certain influence. Such as forced the sick child to the fire, to the patient's head sprinkling the ashes, these rituals are not the characteristics of islam. Islamic culture occupies an important position in the Turkmen people's social life, the Turkmen people revered saints of islam. Customs and taboos



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