奥地利今日气温查询祖尔斯,滨湖采尔,采尔特维格,茨韦特尔城,维也纳新城,温迪施加斯滕,魏德霍芬河畔塔亚,沃尔夫斯堡,布鲁登茨等城市今日气温查询

奥地利 奥地利,位于欧洲的中部,北靠德国、捷克,东与斯洛伐克和匈牙利相邻,南部与斯洛文尼亚、意大利接壤,西部是瑞士和列支敦士登,是中欧大陆从南到北、从西到东的交通枢纽。奥地利面积83858平方公里,西部和南部是山区(阿尔卑斯山脉),北部和东北是平原和丘陵地带,47%的面积为森林所覆盖。气候由温带海洋性向大陆性过渡,经济发达,工业部门多,农林牧业并重,旅游业兴旺。奥地利总人口812万,其中女性公民占51.6%,男性占48.4%。平均寿命:女性81.2岁,男性75.4岁。人口密度每平方公里约100人。奥地利共有维也纳、上奥地利、下奥地利、萨尔茨堡、蒂罗尔、福阿尔贝格、克恩顿、施泰尔马克、布尔艮兰9个联邦州,首都维也纳。1936年7月11日,奥地利和法国签订条约,承认奥地利独立。1955年10月26日,奥地利宣布永久中立。

环境气候 奥地利位置图 面积为83858平方公里。是位于中欧南部的内陆国。东邻斯洛伐克和匈牙利,南接斯洛文尼亚和意大利,西连瑞士和列支敦士登,北与德国和捷克接壤。山地占全国面积的70%。东阿尔卑斯山脉自西向东横贯全境,大格罗克纳山海拔3797米,为全国最高峰。东北部是维也纳盆地,北部和东南部为丘陵、高原。多瑙河流经东北部境内,长约350公里。有与德国和瑞士共有的博登湖及奥匈边界的新锡德尔湖。属海洋性向大陆性过渡的温带阔叶林气候, 年平均降水量约700毫米。 阿尔卑斯山覆盖了奥地利大部分国土,对奥地利的不同气候状况起着决定性作用。阿尔卑斯山北端大多属于中欧气候,即在宜人的夏季也会有降雨。南阿尔卑斯山在克恩滕,属地中海型气候,温暖少雨。阿尔卑斯山本身则夏热冬冷且多雪。奥地利东部属大陆型气候,布尔根兰受潘诺尼亚平原(Panonian Plain)影响,夏季炎热,冬季寒冷。 行政区划 全国分为9个州,15个有自主权的城市,84个区和最低一级的2355个乡镇。9个州是:布尔根兰州、克恩顿州、上奥地利州、下奥地利州、萨尔茨堡州、施蒂利亚州、蒂罗尔州、福拉尔贝格州、维也纳州。州以下设市、区、镇(乡)。

In 400 BC, the Celts built Nuolikong kingdom. 15 BC by the romans. The early medieval Goths, Bavaria, Alemanni entry living, make this area and Christianized germanic. In 996 ad, history in the first mention of "Austria". In twelfth Century leaves Hohenstaufen formed during the rule of the duchy, became an independent country. In 1276 by the Holy Rome Empire occupation, in 1278, the beginning of the Habsburg dynasty ruling for 640 years. 1699 was the Hungarian rule. In 1804 Franz S by the emperor of Austria title in 1806, was forced to resign as sacred Empire emperor in the Rome said. In 1815, after the Vienna conference, was founded by Austrian led the German confederation. 1860 - 1866 transition to constitutional monarchy. The 1866 defeat in the Austro Prussian War, forced the dissolution of the German confederation. In agreement with Hungary, was founded in two yuan of the Austro Hungarian empire. The first World War, the Austrian Empire was defeated, the collapse. November 12, 1918 announced the establishment of the Republic of Austria. In 1938 March by the Nazi Germany annexed. The war as part of Germany in World War Two. Allied forces after the liberation of Austria, Austria in April 27, 1945 to set up a provisional government. In July the same year, after the surrender of Germany, Austria and the occupied Soviet, beauty, British, French, all divided into 4 occupation zones. In 1955 May, 4 countries signed the treaty with Austria that respects Austria's sovereignty and independence. In 1955 October troops withdraw. In October 26th the same year the Austrian national parliament passed permanent legislation, announced that he would not participate in any military alliance, do not permit the establishment of foreign military bases on its territory. In May 11, 2005, Austria's National Assembly approved the "EU Constitution Treaty".

现行宪法于1920年11月10日生效。1925年和1929年先后通过两项附则。1934年宪法被废除。1945年奥重建后宣布1920年宪法和两个附则继续有效。宪法规定,奥地利为联邦制共和国。总统是国家元首,行使国家最高权力,由普选产生,任期6年。议会为两院制,由国民议会和联邦议会组成。国民议会制定法律,按比例代表制产生,任期4年。联邦议会代表各州的利益,其议员由各州按人口比例选派。国民议会和联邦议会联合组成联邦会议,主要职能是接受总统就职宣誓以及在必要时决定对外宣战。总理为政府首脑。 外交 1955年 10月宣布永久中立。冷战之后,奥地利对其以中立政策为核心的外交政策进行了调整,致力于开展积极的全方位外交。 与中国关系 1971年 5月28日,奥地利与中国建交。2005年4月奥地利总理许塞尔访华。

In 1955 September, Austria promulgated the "National Defense Law", creating the federal army. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces. The National Safety Council as the highest safety decision mechanism, composed of 17 members of the federal prime minister, deputy prime minister, foreign affairs, defense, interior, justice minister and parliamentary parliamentary representatives, the federal army chief of staff attendance. The international department is the highest organ of military command, usually by the president authorized the Secretary of defense to implement the leadership and command of the armed forces. The minister is the highest military adviser. The Austrian Army compulsory military service. At present, the standing force of 31000 people. "The Austrian Army - 2010" plan regular troops remain in the 23000 person. The army organized into 4 brigades, 1 special forces. The country was divided into 9 states military area command. Major equipment: various types of 116 tanks, and 567 vehicles, various types of gun 608. Air Force 2 aviation regiment, 3 air defence regiment and 1 radar battalion.

奥地利地处欧洲中心,是欧洲重要的交通枢纽。奥地利的工业特点是国有化程度高,国有企业控制了95%的基础工业和85%以上的动力工业,其产值及职工人数均占其总数的70%。主要工业部门是采矿、钢铁、机械制造、石油化工、电力、金属加工、汽车制造、纺织、服装、造纸、食品等,采矿业规模相对较小。钢铁工业在国民经济中占有重要地位。奥地利化学工业原料丰富,如木材、石油、天然气和煤焦油等,为化工的发展提供了有利条件。主要化工产品有纤维素,氮肥和石化产品。机械制造业主要生产工业机械成套设备,如水轮发电机、多钻头采煤机、铁路筑路机、木材加工机和钻探设备等。汽车工业是奥地利机械制造业的又一主要部门。主要生产载重汽车、越野车、拖拉机、牵引车、装甲运输车及散件等。采矿业是奥地利的传统工业,主要开采铁矿、褐煤、钨、石膏、菱镁矿、大理石、滑石、高岭土、石英。矿产主要有石墨和镁,另有褐煤、铁、石油和天然气等。森林、水力资源丰富。森林占国土面积的42%,有林场400万公顷,木材蓄积量约9.9亿立方米。农业发达,机械化程度高。农产品自给有余。服务业从业人员约占劳动力总数的56%,其中旅游业是最重要的服务行业,主要旅游点是蒂罗尔州、萨尔茨堡州、克恩顿州和维也纳市。奥地利对外贸易在经济中占重要地位。主要出口产品是钢铁、机械、交通工具、化工制品和食品。进口主要是能源、原料和消费品。农业发达。  

Austria school children can enjoy nine years of compulsory education. Tuition, books and school transportation fees are paid by the state. Where the holder of a high school diploma exemption will be on the university. The famous University of Vienna was founded in 1365, is the oldest university in the German speaking areas.



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