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美国国旗 美国拼音meiguo。美国,美利坚合众国(United States of America),是一个由五十个州和一个联邦直辖特区组成的宪政联邦共和制国家。其东濒大西洋,西临太平洋,北靠加拿大,南接墨西哥。美国国土面积超过962万平方公里,位居全球第三或第四(数据有争议);其人口总量也超过三亿人,少于中国和印度。1776年7月4日,大陆会议在费城正式通过《独立宣言》,宣告美国诞生。自1870年以来,美国国民经济就高居全球第一。今天的美国则是联合国安理会五个常任理事国之一,其在全球的政治、经济、军事、娱乐等众多领域的庞大影响力更是其他国家所无法匹敌的。1919年10月28日,美国全国禁酒法令颁布。1920年6月13日,美国邮政规定不得使用邮包寄送儿童。1954年5月17日,美国最高法院宣布废除黑白分校制。

名称美利坚合众国(The United States of America)简称美国(U.S.A、U.S、The United States 、The States或者America.),美国因洲名美洲而得名。在英语中,亚美利加 和美利坚为同一词“America”,只是汉译不同,前者指全美洲,后者指美国。国旗美国国旗别称“星条旗”(The Stars and Stripes)、“古老的光荣”呈横长方形,长与宽之比为19∶10。主体由13道红、白相间的宽条组成,7道红条,6道白条;旗面左上角为蓝色长方形。其中分9排横列着50颗白色五角星。红色象征勇气,白色象征自由,蓝色则象征正义。13道宽条代表最早发动独立战争并取得胜利的13个州,50颗五角星代表美利坚合众国的州数。1818年美国国会通过法案,国旗上的红白宽条固定为13道,五角星数目应与合众国州数一致。每增加一个州,国旗上就增加一颗星,一般在新州加入后的第二年7月4日执行。每年6月14日为“美国国旗制定纪念日”。在这一天,美国各地举行纪念活动,以示对国旗的敬重和对合众国的热爱。国徽主体为一只胸前带有盾形图案的白头海雕(秃鹰)。白头海雕是美国的国鸟,它是力量、勇气、自由和不朽的象征。盾面上半部为蓝色横长方形,下半部为红、白相间的竖条,其寓意同国旗。鹰之上的顶冠象征在世界的主权国家中又诞生一个新的独立国家——美利坚合众国;顶冠内有13颗白色五角星,代表美国最初的13个洲。鹰的两爪分别抓着橄榄枝和十三支箭,象征和平和武力。鹰嘴叼着的黄色绶带上用拉丁文写着“合众为一”,意为美利坚合众国由很多洲组成,是一个完整的联邦国家。国歌美国国歌《星条旗》("the star-spangled banner"曾译《星条旗永不落》,虽然这种译法使该歌曲与美国国家进行曲《The Star and Stripes Forever》重名,并且与英文原意不符,但该译法的使用依然相当广泛)诞生在巴尔底摩。据传说,巴尔的摩市东南的麦克亨利堡,曾在第二次英美战争期间作为前哨阵地抗击英军。它建在一个小半岛上,是个平面成五角星状的要塞,扼进港要道。1814年,英国舰队直扑麦克亨利堡,昼夜连续猛轰此堡。当时,有一位名叫弗朗西斯·斯科特·基的美国律师乘船到英舰交涉释放被扣留的美国平民。他目击了英军炮轰麦克亨利堡的经过,忧心如焚。次日早晨,当他透过战场上的硝烟看到星条旗仍在要塞上空猎猎飘扬时感慨万分,于是激情满怀地写下了《星条旗》这首诗。诗歌很快不胫而走,后被配上曲谱后流传全国。1931年,美国国会正式将《星条旗》定为国歌 。《星条旗》的曲子是“进行曲之王”苏萨著名的代表作,创作于1897年(另一说1896年),管乐合奏曲。这首进行曲充分发挥铜管乐队的表现功能,以磅礴的气势和热烈的情绪歌颂自己的国家和军队,颇有鼓动力。

In 1620, more than 100 British Puritans came to the new world by the May flower. This painting by William HaIso (William Halsall) in the 1882 creation of the colonial era Native Americans lived more than 15000 years in the land of. Europe began at the end of the fifteenth Century colonial america. In 1607, the first English colony established in the state of Virginia. Over the next twenty years, some of the Holland colony was established, including in Newamsterdam (now New York city) and the state of New Jersey colony. In seventeenth Century and eighteenth Century, Britain gradually occupied the Dutch and other European colonists area, and in the East Coast Reclamation America wide colonial, build more colonies. Besides today Canada, Britain in North America were established 13 colonies. Independent in the 1760's and 1770's, tensions between the 13 American colonies and the British eventually caused the revolutionary war, the colony representatives in July 4, 1776 signed the "Declaration of independence" America. In the war of independence (1775 1783 years), George Washington led the 13 colonies consisting of the Continental Army against the British army. Colonies in 76 years Congress created the Continental Army, but unauthorized they impose taxes and federal law. In 1777, the independent colony formally adopted the articles of Confederation, establishes a federal sovereign state, and the exercise of the right of management of the federal government, and approved by the American constitution. Through hard after the war of independence, the Continental Army finally defeated the British, the United Kingdom in 1783 signed a "Treaty of Paris", officially recognized USA independent. From 1803 to 1848, established USA area expanded by almost three times, the colonists mind New Republic "was extended to the whole world" ideals, toward the vast boundless wilderness expansion, even in the "Luisi Anna purchase" before they have been further inland. The map shows the specific area occupied time, Oregon and other regions have not been included in this expansion in the war of 1812 was a short obstruction, but soon with the victory of the war and continued. In 1848 USA won the Mexican American war, strengthened the colonists expanded land ideal. The civil war with the expansion and development of the country, a new problems have gradually emerged, the federal government and the North South control state disagreement in the problem of slavery and state rights: the expansion of Northern States opposed slavery; while the southern states against northern state interference in their life style, because their cotton economy industry is totally dependent on slavery. Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, conflict completely broke, South Carolina became the first seceded States, six southern states have separate, established in 1861, the Confederate States of America against the federal government. American civil war by the Federation in 1865 achieved victory, at the end of slavery, and whether the state had the right to leave the union dispute. The civil war to become the main watershed American history, the power of the federal government has greatly increased. During the civil war the development of science and technology, coupled with the large number of immigrants from Europe, provide a large number of labor for the new industries America, before nobody development region founded many communities and the city, has accelerated the American industrial development and the process towards international power. Then, America were the many adventures of imperialism in the overseas, including the war victory after the annexation of Puerto Rico and Philippines, the American become one of world main big powers. First, the two World War and the Great Depression of the first World War broke out in 1914, USA initially neutral; because of unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic sailing ships sunk America Germany launched, causing many USA of innocent civilians casualties, angered American mass. In the last stage of the war America joined the allied against the allies. Due to historical reasons, American mass for Britain and France more sympathy, although some German and Irish opposition to intervention. To a lot of investment protection USA investors and the federal government in Europe is also one of the main American war. In 1902 immigrants arriving by boat America mass immigration contributed to American prosperity during the American went to war in 1917, the situation has been reversed, the allies to win in 1918. After the war, worried about being involved in European affairs, the Senate did not approve the Treaty of Versailles USA allies allies sanctions; on the contrary, American adopted a policy of isolationism. The war to European countries badly hurt, because of the war has never been in North America mainland, bring USA brought a lot of wealth and prestige. In almost the whole 1920 years, the price of agricultural products continue to lower, industry profit growth, America unusually prosperous economic development. This wave of economic growth has been thriving credit and rising stock market strength, finally make the stock market in the crash of 1929, followed by the great depression. In order to revive the economy, Franklin Delano I government implemented the new deal, a substantial increase in government intervention in the economy. Although the economy is largely mitigated, however the new deal is not completely effective, USA economy until after the Second World War to complete recovery. In the aftermath of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, USA joined the anti fascist alliance against the axis powers. The battle over the next become a war America history the most expensive, but a lot of job opportunities, front and rear creation and military industries production recovery, the USA economy completely out of the great panic haze. America women also therefore mass into the workplace.

行政区划美国各州的分布除夏威夷和阿拉斯加两个州外,其余48个州位于美洲大陆,并彼此相连,这些州又称美国本土。一些人将阿拉斯加也视为“本土”州,因为虽然它和“下方的48州”之间被加拿大隔离,地理上它仍是北美大陆的一部分。所有这些用词通常都包括华盛顿哥伦比亚特区。第五十个州夏威夷州则位于太平洋的群岛上。美国也占有其他土地、地区、和占领区,最特别的是美国首都华盛顿哥伦比亚特区,但本身却没有州的地位。其他的海外岛屿领土包括美属萨摩亚、关岛、北马里亚纳群岛、波多黎各、和美属维尔京群岛。巴尔米拉环礁是美国唯一的合并领土,但目前并无人居住。美国本土外小岛屿则由加勒比海和太平洋的许多无人居住的岛屿组成。此外,自1898年始,美国在古巴的关塔纳摩湾拥有一个庞大的海军基地。之前由美国占领的地区包括巴拿马运河区域,自1903年至1979年一直属于美国领土。另外,菲律宾群岛从1898年至1935年间也属于美国领土,美国在那里建立了菲律宾国协作为转型至完全独立的国家前的过渡形式,最后在1946年菲律宾正式独立。除了美国的实际州和领土外,有数个国家自愿加入为美国的联合邦(Associated States),包括了密克罗尼西亚联邦(1986年以来)、帕劳(1994年以来)、以及马绍尔群岛(1986年以来),这些国家都保有国际法的主权以及对于国土的最高控制权力。不过,这些国家的政府都允许美国提供防卫和金融协助,美国也给予这些国家特殊待遇,提供许多加入美国国内政策计划的机会,包括灾害防治、救灾、和重建等计划。这些自由联合邦都依赖美国提供的金融协助以维持政府运作和资金需求。 各州列表缩写     州名        州名汉译             首府                     首府汉译                ALAlabama亚拉巴马Montgomery蒙哥马利AKAlaska阿拉斯加Juneau朱AZArizona亚利桑那Phoenix菲尼克斯ARArkansas阿肯色LittleRock小石城CACalifornia加利福尼亚Sacramento萨克拉门托COColorado科罗拉多Denver丹佛CTConnecticut康涅狄格Harford哈特福德DEDelaware特拉华Dover多佛DCDistrict of Columbia哥伦比亚特区  FLFlorida佛罗里达Tallahassee塔拉哈西GAGeorgia佐治亚Atlanta亚特兰大HIHawaii夏威夷Honolulu火奴鲁鲁IDIdaho爱达荷Boise博伊西ILIllinois伊利诺斯Springfield斯普林菲尔德INIndiana印第安纳Indianapolis印第安纳波利斯IAIowa爱荷华Desmoines得梅因KSKansas堪萨斯Topeka托皮卡KYKentucky肯塔基Frankfort法兰克福LALouisiana路易斯安那BatonRouge巴吞鲁日MEMaine缅因Augusta奥古斯塔MDMaryland马里兰Annapolis安那波利斯MAMassachusetts马萨诸塞Boston波士顿MIMichigan密歇根Lansing兰辛MNMinnesota明尼苏达St.Paul圣保罗MSMississippi密西西比Jackson杰克逊MOMissouri密苏里JeffersonCity杰斐逊城MTMontana蒙大拿Helena海伦娜NENebraska内布拉斯加Lincoln林肯NVNevada内华达CarsonCity卡森城NHNew Hampshire新罕布什尔Concord康科德NJNew Jersey新泽西Trenton特伦顿NMNew Mexico新墨西哥SantaFe圣菲NYNew York纽约Albany奥尔巴尼NCNorth Carolina北卡罗来纳Raleigh罗利NDNorth Dakota北达科他Bismarck俾斯麦OHOhio俄亥俄Columbus哥伦布OKOklahoma俄克拉荷马OklahomaCity俄克拉何马城OROregon俄勒冈Salem塞勒姆PAPennsylvania宾夕法尼亚Harrisburg哈里斯堡RIRhode Island罗得岛Providence普罗维登斯SCSouth Carolina南卡罗来纳Columbia哥伦比亚SDSouth Dakota南达科他Pierre皮尔TNTennessee田纳西Nashville纳什维尔TXTexas得克萨斯Austin奥斯汀UTUtah犹他SaltLakeCity盐湖城VTVermont佛蒙特Montpelier蒙比利埃VAVirginia弗吉尼亚Richmond里士满WAWashington华盛顿Olympia奥林匹亚WVWest Virginia西弗吉尼亚Charleston查尔斯顿WIWisconsin威斯康辛Madison麦迪逊WYWyoming怀俄明Cheyenne夏延     人口2000年的美国人口密集度分部图美国政府宣布,2010年人口普查数据显示,截至2010年4月1日,美国总人口为3亿874万5538人,与2000年的2.814亿人相比增长9.7%。普查发现,美国南部和西部地区人口,尤其是拉丁(西班牙)裔数量大增,形成了对共和党人相对更为有利的“选民基础”。美国人口普查每十年举行一次,并且将直接决定美国国会众议院435个席位的分配方案。因此,上述普查结果会改变2012年总统大选开始时各州拥有的选举团票数。有分析认为,由于南部和西部地区人口大增,美国会众议院议席将更多被共和党占据。从1980年以后,南部和西部一直是共和党的“政治根据地”。 根据新的人口比例分布图,美国有8个州将获得更多联邦众议员席位,其中共和党控制的德克萨斯州将增加4席;佛罗里达州将增加2 席;其余六个州各增加1席。与此同时,另外,有10个州的众议员席位将被削减,其中纽约州和俄亥俄州各减少2席,剩下的8州各减1席。这对在中期选举中惨败的民主党和奥巴马总统而言绝不是好消息。现在美国人口最多的地区是加利福尼亚州,当地居民超过3725万人,人口最少的怀俄明州,只有56万多人。过去十年间,除了密歇根州人口减少0.6%外,美国其余各州人口数量都在不断增加,其中内华达州增幅高达35%,并且以此名列全美之冠。 大多数的美国人(在2004年有74.67%)是欧洲白人移民的后代,这些移民当时在首批殖民地安居,许多是在内战后的“南部重建运动”中来到美国的,由于非白人的移民以及少数族群的高出生率的缘故,非拉美裔人的白人比率正在逐渐下跌。主要的欧洲原籍是德国(15.6%)、爱尔兰(10.8%)、英格兰(8.7%)、意大利(5.6%)和斯堪的纳维亚(3.7%);很多也来自斯拉夫国家,如波兰和俄罗斯等;其他的移民来自东欧、南欧和加拿大的法语区。美国原住民如印第安人则有440万人,之中约有35%居住在政府规划的原住民保留区。亚裔美国人(不包括夏威夷人和太平洋岛屿住民)是第三大的少数族裔,2005年普查中占到5%。大多数亚裔美国人集中在西海岸和夏威夷,亚裔中最大的族群来自菲律宾、中国、印度、越南、韩国和日本。拉美裔人是美国第二大(仅次于德裔)的种族族群,占总人口的14.1%(2004年),之中自墨西哥移民而来的占了66%,并且预计在将来几十年中仍会高速增长。非裔美国人遍布全美,不过南方的黑人区为最大。主要来自非洲、并且在19世纪之前依然多为奴隶的非裔美国人(或称黑人)现在则有3,500万人(12.12%)。   人口城市化:城市化水平高,城市人口大约占77%;分布均匀;东部大西洋沿海和西部太平洋沿海稠密,中西部稀疏;50%的人口分布在沿海的五大湖区;人口向南部、西部迁移。人口总数303,824,640(2008年7月,世界第三)。人口成长率:0.883%。0-14岁:20.1%(男31,257,108/女29,889,645)15-64岁:67.1%(男101,825,901/女102,161,823)65岁以上:12.7%(男16,263,255/女22,426,914)(2008估计)平均年龄:36.7岁,男:35.4years;女:38.1year平均寿命78.14岁,其中男性为75.29岁,女性为81.13岁。人口密度31人/平方公里(世界第144名)。目前全美国有大约77%的人口居住于城市地区,其中又有半数以上集中于37座主要的大城市。这些城市也形塑了美国的文化、传统、和经济。在2004年,全美有251个超过了100,000人的都市,以及9个超过1,000,000人的大都市,包括了好几个重要的全球城市,例如纽约市、洛杉矶、和芝加哥。此外,若将市中心外的都会区域也算进去的话,美国有50个超过了1,000,000人的大都会。[9] 亦是每年世界最佳居住城市评选中,最多国内城市名列前茅的国家之一。排行  都市          人口                     仅限市内人口             密集度每平方英哩大都会区域               地区           百万排名 1纽约市8,143,19726,402.918.71东北部2洛杉矶3,844,8297,876.812.92西部3芝加哥2,842,51812,750.39.43中西部4休斯敦2,016,5823,371.75.27南部5费城1,463,28111,233.65.84东北部6菲尼克斯1,461,5752,782.03.714西部7圣安东尼奥1,256,5092,808.51.829南部8圣迭戈1,255,5403,771.92.917西部9达拉斯1,213,8253,469.95.75南部10圣何塞912,3325,117.91.730西部语言虽然美国没有法定官方语言,英语是事实上的国家语言。据2003年统计,约2亿1480万(81.6%)的五岁以上人口在家只说英语。英语是最通用的交流语言,掌握一定程度的英语也是移民归化的要求之一。一些美国人呼吁把英语提升为官方语言,有27个州已经通过地方法律确保英语的官方地位;有3个州承认其他语言与英语有平行地位:路易斯安那州的法语,夏威夷州的夏威夷语和新墨西哥州的西班牙语。除英语外,使用人口超过100万人的语言包括西班牙语(2970万)、汉语(230万)、法语(140万)、塔加洛语(130万)、越南语(110万)、德语(110万)。除了这些主要语言外,还有其他336种语言在美国被使用,其中有176种是当地土产的语言。国土面积美国地图美国的国土面积是世界第三或者第四大,仅次于俄罗斯、加拿大,在中国之前或之后。排名不同取决于中印两国领土争议,以及美国领土总面积的计算方法。美国国家审计局记载9,629,091平方公里,美国中央情报局出版的《世界概况》记载美国国土面积为9,826,630平方公里,不列颠百科全书则记载9,522,055平方公里。如果只计陆地区域,美国排名第三,仅次于俄罗斯、中国,在加拿大之前。美国也拥有许多散布于加勒比海(例如波多黎各)与太平洋(例如关岛)上的海外领土。美国国土东至大西洋、西至太平洋、南至墨西哥湾、北至加拿大。阿拉斯加州也与加拿大接壤,南至太平洋而北至北冰洋。夏威夷州则处在太平洋的群岛上,位于北美大陆的西南方。根据美国中央情报局,从1989年到1996年,列举的美国总面积为9,372,610平方公里。在1997年变更为9,629,091平方公里,在2004年变更为9,631,418平方公里,在2006年变更为9,631,420平方公里,在2007年变更为9,826,630平方公里。这种变化主要是由于对水域面积的统计方法的变更造成的。2008年9月4日的最新资料,美国总面积(包括50个州和华盛顿特区)有9,826,630平方公里,土地:9,161,923平方公里,水域:664,707平方公里。海岸线长:19,924公里。本土东西长4500公里,南北宽2700公里。最低点:死亡谷(DeathValley)-86米最高点:McKinley山,6,198米大小之争:美国中央情报局的网站认为,美国总面积相当于俄国的一半,非洲的3/10,南美洲的一半,稍微大于中国,超过欧洲联盟的二倍之多。根据该网站,中国领土总面积为9,596,960平方公里,其中土地面积9,326,410平方公里,水域面积:270,550平方公里,所以说,如果只比较土地面积,那么中国大于美国,是世界第三大。如果加入水域面积,中国领土小于美国,成为世界第四大。大峡谷国家公园地势地形美国国土地形变化多端,尤其是在西部。东海岸沿岸地区有着海岸平原,在南部较为宽广,而在北部较为狭窄,海岸平原在新泽西州以北并不存在,不过在长岛等地也有一些冰川沉积平原。在海岸平原后方的是地形起伏的山麓地带,延伸到位于北卡罗莱那州和新罕布什尔州、高6,000英尺(1830米)的阿巴拉契亚山脉为止。在阿巴拉契亚山脉以西是美国中西部地带的内部平原,这里相对而言较为平坦,五大湖和密西西比河-密苏里河流域—世界上第四大的河域也位于这里。在密西西比河以西,内部平原的地形开始上升,最后进入美国中部面积广阔而地形特色稀少的大平原(Great Plains)。在大平原西部则有高耸的落基山脉,从南至北将美国大陆一分为二,在科罗拉多州的最高峰到达14,000英尺(4,270米)。在以前落基山脉还有频繁的火山活动;现在则只剩下一个区域了(怀俄明州黄石国家公园的超级火山—可能是世界上最大的火山)。在落基山脉以西和内华达山脉以南的大盆地(Great Basin)地带有大量的高山、盐带平原、和山谷,内华达山脉本身也有崎岖的峡谷。在大盆地地带的西南方则有低于海平线的死谷(Death Valley),那里也是西半球最低矮的地区。大脸盆地带北方和喀斯喀特山脉(Cascades)东方的则是哥伦比亚河高原,有着一个大规模的火成岩区,是地球上最大的洪流玄武岩地区。由科罗拉多河贯穿的科罗拉多高原则坐落于四角落州正中央,高原的海拔高度平均极高,并且有经过强烈侵蚀的砂岩地带,这些红土高原也是数个国家公园坐落的地方,包括了布莱斯、大峡谷、宰恩等。而在大脸盆地带西方的内华达山脉则有美国本土海拔最高的惠特尼山(Mount Whitney)。在太平洋沿岸地区旁的是太平洋海岸山脉和火山喀斯喀特山脉,从南至北横越美国。阿拉斯加州也有许多山脉,包括了北美洲最高、20,320英尺(6,194米)的麦金利山,阿拉斯加大陆以西和以南的阿留申群岛上也有许多火山。夏威夷群岛则是热带的火山岛群,分布面积超过1,500英哩(2,400公里),由6个大岛和其他一打的小岛组成。气候美国由于幅员辽阔和广泛的地理特征,美国几乎有着世界上所有的气候类型。美国相较之下相当理想的气候也是促成它迈向世界强权的原因之一,在主要农业地带少有严重的干旱发生、洪水泛滥也并不常见,并且有着温和而又能取得足够降雨量的气温。影响美国气候的主要是北极气流,每年从太平洋带来了大规模的低气压,这些低气压在通过内华达山脉、落基山派、和喀斯喀特山脉时夹带了大量水分,当这些气压到达中部大平原时便能进行重组,导致主要的气团相遇而带来激烈的大雷雨,尤其是在春季和夏季。有时这些暴雨可能与其他的低气压会合,继续前往东海岸和大西洋,并会演变为更激烈的东北风暴(Nor'easter),在美国东北的中大西洋区域和新英格兰形成广泛而沉重的降雪。大平原广阔无比的草原也形成了许多世界上最极端的气候转变现象。大脸盆地区和哥伦比亚河高原则是干旱而极少降雨的地区,最干旱时平均降雨量少于15英吋(38厘米)。美国西南部是干旱的沙漠,夏季时最热的数个礼拜温度超过华氏100度(摄氏38度)。西南部和大脸盆地区也会受到来自加利福尼亚湾的季风影响,偶而会带来少见的大雨。加利福尼亚州大多数区域都属于地中海式气候,有时会在每年的10月至隔年的4月引发强烈豪雨,而其他月份几乎全无降雨。濒临太平洋的西北方地区则终年豪雨不断,但在冬季和春季降雨量最大。西部山脉吸收了充足的湿气,降雨量和降雪都相当沉重。喀斯喀特山脉是世界上降雪量最多的地方之一,但海拔较低的沿海地区降雪不多。水系美国从总体上可分为三大水系:凡位于落基山以东的注入大西洋的河流都称为大西洋水系,主要有密西西比河、康涅狄格河和赫得森河。其中密西西比河全长6020公里,居世界第四位。凡注入太平洋的河流称太平洋水系。主要有科罗拉多河、哥伦比亚河、育空河等。北美洲中东部的大湖群。包括苏必利尔湖、密歇根湖、休伦湖、伊利湖和安大略湖,总面积24.5万平方公里,为世界最大的淡水水域,素有“北美地中海”之称,其中密歇根湖属美国,其余4湖为美国和加拿大共有。苏必利尔湖为世界最大的淡水湖,面积在世界湖泊中仅次于里海而居世界第二位。生物美国有超过17,000种本土的植物和树种,光是加利福尼亚州就有5,000种,从热带地区至北极都有植物分布,美国的植物是世界上最多样化的,同时,数千种非本土的外来物种有时也会影响到本土的动植物。美国本土有超过400种哺乳类、700种鸟类、500种爬虫类和两栖类、以及90,000种已经被发现的昆虫。许多植物和动物都仅限于它们的分部区域,有些则濒临绝种的危险。 美国也是世界上最早开始重视环境保护的国家之一,在1872年联邦政府建立了黄石国家公园以保护当地环境,成为了世界上第一个国家公园。自从那时以来,另外57个国家公园和上百个由联邦政府管理的公园及树林也陆续成立。某些地区也成立了荒野保护区,以确保对当地动植物栖息地的长期保护。美国渔业与野生动物局(Fish and Wildlife Service)负责监控濒临绝种和威胁的动植物,并在全国成立了许许多多的动植物栖息保留区。这些动植物保护区域全部加起来高达1,020,779平方英哩(2,643,807平方公里)—占了全国总面积的28.8%。这些土地都由联邦政府保护,但有些地区也放宽允许石油的勘查、采矿业、和大农场的经营。资源自然资源丰富。煤、石油、天然气、铁矿石、钾盐、磷酸盐、硫磺等矿物储量均居世界前列。战略矿物资源钛、锰、钴、铬等主要靠进口。探明煤储量35,966亿吨。探明原油储量270亿桶。探明天然气储量56,034亿立方米。森林面积约44亿亩,覆盖率达33%。

Congress is the legislative branch of The United States Capitol as the federal government in the role of government, President of the cabinet system. The president is the commander in chief of state, heads of government and the armed forces. The president's executive orders and the law have the same effect. Indirectly elected president, a term of four years. The cabinet appointed by the ministers and the president of the other members. The cabinet in fact only presidential aides and advisers, no collective decision-making power. In January 20, 2001, George Walker Bush was sworn in as president in January 20, 2005, began a second term. In November 4, 2008, America presidential candidate Barack Obama won the 2008 presidential election American America, become fifty-sixth, forty-fourth and forty-third presidents. The constitution of July 4, 1776 established a constitutional document, "federal regulations". In 1787 May formulated the draft constitution in 1789 March, the first congress proclaimed in force. It is the first in the world as an independent, unified state written constitution. For two centuries, has developed a total of 27 amendments to the constitution. Important changes are: 1791 September passed by Congress that belief, including speech, freedom of the press and the right to peaceful assembly, the constitution of the 10 amendment, later known as the "bill of rights" (or "bill of rights"); in 1865 and 1870 by about the abolition of slavery and the recognition of black civil rights thirteenth and the 15 amendment; in 1951 by President can not exercise the functions and powers prescribed by the vice president as president of the twenty-fifth amendment. The main contents of the constitution is to establish a federal country, states have more autonomy, including the power to legislate; the separation of the three powers of the political system, legislative, administrative, judicial separation of the three sector, and restrict each other. America Congress scene Congress is composed of 100 senators and 435 representatives congress is the highest legislative body, composed of the house of Representatives, the senate. Senate and house of representatives directly elected by voters states. The 2 senators from each state, a total of 100, a term of 6 years, the election every two years 1/3. House of Representatives according to the proportion of the allocation of places selected states, a total of 435, a term of two years, the expiration of all elections. Senate and House members can be re elected, a term limited. Senators were full-time, shall not concurrently hold the position of government posts. This Congress (107th) in November 7, 2000 and the presidential election and by election. The Senate of 1/3 seats (34 seats) and all 435 House seats after the election. Comparison of seats Republicans and Democrats in the new session of Congress, house of Representatives respectively into 50:50 and 221:212 (the other two seats in the house of representatives to be independent). The vice president Cheney to act as vice president, could break the balance of the vote in the Senate, Republicans are still in control of both chambers. The President pro tempore of the Senate and Strom Thumond (StromThurmond), the majority party (Republican) leader Trent Lott (TrentLott), the minority party (Democratic Party) leader Thomas Daschle (ThomasDaschle). House Speaker Nancy Dennis Hastert (DennisHastert), the majority party (Republican) leader Richard Amy (RichardArmey), the minority party (Democratic Party) leader Richard Gphardt (RichardGephardt). Judicial institutions set up the Federal Supreme Court, federal courts, state courts and special courts. The Federal Supreme Court by the chief justice and 8 Associate Justices, tenure. The Supreme Court has the power to declare any federal and state law is invalid. The current chief justice William Rehnquist (WilliamRehnquist). Party USA multiple parties, but play a major role in the domestic political and social life of the only Republican and democratic. (1) the Republican Party (Republican Party): established in 1854. In 1861 Lincoln became president, the first ruling party. After more than 70 years to 1933, except for 16 years, the Republicans have been in the white house. Between 1933 and 2001, there was Eisenhower (1953 January to 1961 January), Nixon (1969 January to 1977 Ford, January), Reagan (1981 January to 1989 January), Bush (1989 January to 1993 January) the ruling. The party leader for the president or losing presidential candidate, is currently the chairman Jim Gilmore (JimGilmore). Generally speaking, in the presidential election, voters vote for party candidates for its members. The Democratic Party (2) (Democratic Party): founded in 1791, then known as the Republican party. Renamed the Democratic Republican Party in 1794, in 1828 changed to the democratic. In 1861, on the eve of the civil war, division within the Democratic Party, the Party planned slave rebellion in the south. After the civil war, the Democratic Party in 24 years. Cleveland was elected president in 1885. After the party, most of the time the opposition. Beginning in 1933, Democrat Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, Johnson, Carter, Clinton has been elected president of the ruling. The party leader for the president or losing presidential candidate, is currently the chairman Terry McAuliffe (TerryMcAuliffe). Generally speaking, its members is the election of the voters cast votes in the Democratic candidate. (3) third party the greens (GreenParty) and the Reform Party (ReformParty).

尼米兹号超级航母美国军队分为四个军种:陆军、空军、海军和海军陆战队,全都由国防部管理。海岸警卫队在和平时期由国土安全部管辖,战争期间归海军部。美军虽然在20世纪到今天这100多年来经历过了一战、二战、韩战、越战、科索沃战争、阿富汗战争和伊拉克战争等大小战争,多次参与联合国维和行动如在海湾战争中将入侵科威特的伊拉克军队赶出科威特,但美军因为这些战争、维和行动阵亡的士兵人数加起来的总和也不足50万人,而美国本土除911外几乎没几个美国平民在1900年以来因战争原因死亡,可见美军对内的保护和对外的科技军事实力。在苏联垮台后,美军的军事力量之强大,在全球没有任何国家能比。美军的特殊之处在于它能迅速将军事力量投射至全球。虽然法国和英国也有一定的军事投射力量,但美军是唯一一支能在世界上任何一个国家、任何一个角落进行大规模区域战争的军队。美国也拥有世界上能够使用的最庞大的核武器库,并且是世界上唯一曾经在实战中使用过核武器的国家,二战末期在日本的广岛市、长崎市投下两枚原子弹。美军的军事潜力也表现在物流管理上,在这方面的庞大优势使美军能够迅速集结部队应付战争。美国空军有C-5、C-17等巨型空运载具,并且装备世界最先进的F-22猛禽战斗机。美国海军有11艘现役大型航空母舰,配合军事力量投射的原则,使美军能对大部分可能的威胁作出迅速反应。美国在1949年4月4日加入地区性军事防卫组织北大西洋公约组织,也使美国本土有了一层除美军外的军事保护屏障。美国军队目前有现役军人140万,另有几十万预备役部队和国民警卫队兵员。美国实行志愿兵役制度,在战时曾实施过义务兵役。美国的军事开支名列世界第一,2005年的军费超过紧随其后的14个国家的总和。然而,美国的军事预算仅占其GDP的4%。目前美国在全球有七百多个军事基地,包括在和美国没有外交关系的古巴也有军事基地,遍及除南极洲外的各大洲,大致分为欧洲、亚太、印度洋、中东以及美洲五大战略区。美国在欧洲拥有190多个军事基地,驻军总数约10万人。其在亚太和印度洋地区拥有80多个军事基地驻军总数也有10万人左右其中主要驻扎在日本、韩国。在中东地区的军事基地主要分布在伊拉克、土耳其、科威特等国,其中,美在伊拉克约有13万驻军。美在拉美地区建有16个军事基地,主要集中在波多黎各,驻有少量军事人员。比起冷战期间,由于政治制度内部的军事思想变化,美国对军事上的开支和态度已经改变许多。单纯以物质资源衡量,美军目前的开销小于20年前的规模。然而,美军依然被世界视为训练有素、装备最为先进的部队。与潜在的敌手相比,美军在科技上拥有相对优势,这种优势是经过常年的大量研究投资所累积的。与国防相关的研究促成了许多技术突破,包括太空探险、电脑、互联网、超文本系统、核能源、全球定位系统、低可侦测性、防弹背心、甚至是微波炉,以及近来致力开发的激光武器。对美军而言,这些在科技研究经费通常高于战斗人员开支。军事技术与民间经济保持了紧密的连结,促成了美国的科技和经济发展,经由技术转移,民间经济往往也因此受益。美国在1997年又对其防务政策进行了必要的调整。调整的主要特点是:更注重对付长远威胁;以“塑造、反应、准备”为指针规划国防和军队建设;强调充分利用军事革命成果,全面加强军队建设。相应地美国将其军事战略调整为“塑造、反应、准备”战略。同年11月,美国总统还颁发指令调整了核战略,但调整是战术性的,仍未摆脱冷战思想。 冷战结束以来,美国多次裁减军队数量,从1991年至1997年,美军现役总兵力已从200.26万人减至143.9万人。 战略核力量:实力计在海、空军内。主要装备有:432枚潜射弹道导弹,配置于18艘战略导弹核潜艇中(“俄亥俄”级SSBN-734型10艘,每艘携24枚“三叉戟”D-5导弹,SSBN-726型8艘,每艘携24枚“三叉戟”C-5导弹);洲际弹道导弹580枚,其中“民兵” Ⅲ型530枚,“和平维持者”50枚;战略轰炸机174架,其中B-1B型95架、B-52H型66架、B-2A型13架。  陆军:美国陆军兵力49万人。编有3个集团军司令部、4个军部、10个作战师(2个装甲师、4个机械化师、2个轻步兵师、1个空中突击师、1个空降师)、5个航空旅、3个装甲骑兵团、6个炮兵旅、9个“爱国者”和2个“复仇者”防空导弹营、3个独立步兵/空降兵营。 主要装备:主战坦克M-60A3、M-1A1和M-1A2型等共7836辆;  轻型坦克M-551型131辆;  装甲侦察车“狐狸”113辆;  步兵战车M-2和M-3型,共6720辆;  装甲输送车M-113型18200辆;  各类火炮7428门,其中277毫米多管火箭炮734门;  反坦克导弹:“陶”和“龙”式,共32857具;  高炮329门,其中20毫米“火神”式118门;  防空导弹“复仇者”式660部,“爱国者”式474部;  各型飞机264架,直升机约5002架,其中武装直升机1460架;  两栖舰艇161艘。 

The Wall Street in New York city on behalf of the American strong financial strength USA modern highly developed market economy, its gross domestic product and foreign trade volume ranks first in the world. In twentieth Century 90, the new economy with the information, biotechnology industry as the representative of the booming, this push, the economy has experienced ten years of growth period. In 2001 the economy into recession after a brief, gradual recovery. In 2004 USA economic recovery is gathering pace, annual GDP growth of 4.4%. In fiscal year 2004 USA federal budget deficit continued to widen, $412300000000. In 2004, the trade deficit of $617100000000, a record high. In 2008, America economy once again showed a declining trend. Characteristics of American economies of both capitalism and mixed economy. In this system, the enterprise and the private sector to do micro economic decisions, the government role in the domestic economic life are relatively minor; however, the sum of all levels of government accounts for 36% of GDP; in the developed countries, American social welfare network is relatively small, government regulation of business is also lower than other developed countries. In all regions of the country, economic activity center is not a. For example: New York city is the financial, publishing, broadcasting and advertising industry center; Losangeles is a film and television production center; San Francisco Bay area and the Pacific Northwest Coast is a technology development center; the central and western regions is a manufacturing and heavy industry center, Detroit is the famous automobile city, Chicago is the region's financial and commercial center; in the southeast medical research, tourism and building materials industries as the main industry, and because of the salary costs lower than other regions, thus continuing to attract investment in manufacturing. American service sector accounted for the largest proportion, 3/4 of the country's labor force engaged in the service industry. American has rich mineral resources, including gold, oil and uranium, however many of the energy supply is dependent on foreign imports. American is the world's largest exporter of agriculture, the main agricultural products include corn, wheat, sugar and tobacco, amazing agricultural production in the great plains which is known as the "granary of the world". America industrial products include the automotive, aircraft and electronic products. USA have developed tourism industry, ranking third in the world. A major exporter of steel, aircraft, American is arms and electronic equipment. USA's largest trading partner is adjacent to Canada (19%), Chinese (12%), Mexico (11%) and Japan (8%) followed, every day there are about $1100000000 worth of product flow through the United States and Canada borders. America economy is considered to be the largest and most important economies in the world. American highly developed economy, many countries in the world currency pegged to the dollar, and USA stock market is considered a barometer of the world economy. The 1980 years since Lona Regan's presidency, American increased use of Neo liberal economic policies, to reduce government intervention, in the economy and reduce the size of the welfare system, long since abandoned to panic since the Keynes faction, interventionist economic policy. Therefore, USA government to provide social welfare services than other industrialized countries have less, reducing domestic taxes, and more dependent on the free market and private charities. In twentieth Century 60 to 70 years, USA government adhere to the "Keynes doctrine" fiscal policy, increase social welfare and military expenditure. In 80, the Reagan administration on one hand, tax relief, on the other hand the expansion of government expenditure especially military spending, leading to America federal deficit expansion. In 1992, the federal deficit reached $290400000000 historical peak, which was American GDP proportion is as high as 4.9%. In 1993 Clinton came to power after the government "deficit" as one of the key policy. 90 years of sustained economic growth that the substantial increase in tax revenue, but the Clinton administration to strengthen tax collection and administration, the federal government in the 1998 fiscal year to turn losses into profits, a $69200000000 surplus. Bush government came to power in January 2001, in the face of the economic downturn, pushed through tax cuts to stimulate economic recovery, coupled with terrorism and military spending increased substantially, the fiscal year 2002 federal fiscal reappear deficit, $157800000000. In fiscal year 2004, the budget deficit of $412300000000, a record high. By the end of 2004, American debt held by the public for $7596200000000, $4408400000000. (source: Ministry of finance USA) bank in recent years, American government gradually relaxed controls on the financial industry, the financial industry mergers and acquisitions exacerbate, commercial bank total in 1985 from less than 14000 to 7887 in 2002. In 1999 November, Congress passed the "financial services American modern law" bill, further canceled securities, insurance and banking restrictions. The major commercial banks are: 1, Citigroup (Citigroup) 2, JP Morgan chase (J.P.MorganChase



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